Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 33, Issue 8, pp 1389–1402

Uptake and cellular distribution, in four plant species, of fluorescently labeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles

  • Dequan Sun
  • Hashmath I. Hussain
  • Zhifeng Yi
  • Rainer Siegele
  • Tom Cresswell
  • Lingxue Kong
  • David M. Cahill
Original Paper

Abstract

Key message

We report the uptake of MSNs into the roots and their movement to the aerial parts of four plant species and their quantification using fluorescence, TEM and proton-induced x-ray emission (micro-PIXE) elemental analysis.

Abstract

Monodispersed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of optimal size and configuration were synthesized for uptake by plant organs, tissues and cells. These monodispersed nanoparticles have a size of 20 nm with interconnected pores with an approximate diameter of 2.58 nm. There were no negative effects of MSNs on seed germination or when transported to different organs of the four plant species tested in this study. Most importantly, for the first time, a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) elemental analysis allowed the location and quantification MSNs in tissues and in cellular and sub-cellular locations. Our results show that MSNs penetrated into the roots via symplastic and apoplastic pathways and then via the conducting tissues of the xylem to the aerial parts of the plants including the stems and leaves. The translocation and widescale distribution of MSNs in plants will enable them to be used as a new delivery means for the transport of different sized biomolecules into plants.

Keywords

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles Fluorescein isothiocyanate Rhodamine isothiocyanate Transmission electron microscopy 

Abbreviations

MSNs

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles

FITC

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

RITC

Rhodamine isothiocyanate

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Supplementary material

299_2014_1624_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
S1 Detailed synthesis and functionalization procedure of MSNs (DOCX 15 kb)
299_2014_1624_MOESM2_ESM.docx (440 kb)
S2 Synthesis and characterization of aggregated MSNs by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). (a) Aggregates of ~ 20 nm MSNs synthesized in a buffer solution (NaOH + KH2PO4) at room temperature pH 7.2 and (b) MSNs synthesized in a buffer solution (NaOH + KH2PO4) at high temperature (95 °C) that shows particles with ovoid to rectangular shape, large pores and diameter (~ 52 nm). Scale bar 50 µm. (DOCX 440 kb)
299_2014_1624_MOESM3_ESM.doc (52 kb)
S3Percentage of maize seed germination following incubation with different concentrations of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) after 5 days. MSNs at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4, 10 and 20 mg/mL−1 were tested, and sterile distilled water was used as the control. The percentage of seed germination started to decrease as the nanoparticle concentration increased. The values for each data point represent the mean ± SD of three replicates with 21 seeds each. (DOC 51 kb)
299_2014_1624_MOESM4_ESM.doc (865 kb)
S4 Cross-sections of wheat plant treated with MSNs. (a–c) Are bright field images of the root, stem and leaf of wheat plant and (d–e) are their corresponding images observed under the green channel using the laser scanning confocal microscope showing no FITC fluorescence when treated with only MSNs. Scale bar 25 µm. (DOC 865 kb)
299_2014_1624_MOESM5_ESM.doc (976 kb)
S5 Cross-sections of lupin treated with MSNs. (a–c) Are bright field images of the root, stem and leaf of lupin plant and (d–e) are their corresponding images observed under the green channel using the laser scanning confocal microscope showing no FITC fluorescence when treated with only MSNs. Scale bar 25 µm. (DOC 976 kb)
299_2014_1624_MOESM6_ESM.docx (56 kb)
S6 Area selection for µ-PIXE elemental analysis of MSNs. are representative images of the maize leaf showing the area selected for quantitative analysis for silica, calcium and potassium. (DOCX 55 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dequan Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hashmath I. Hussain
    • 1
  • Zhifeng Yi
    • 3
  • Rainer Siegele
    • 4
  • Tom Cresswell
    • 4
  • Lingxue Kong
    • 3
  • David M. Cahill
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life and Environmental SciencesDeakin UniversityVictoriaAustralia
  2. 2.South Subtropical Crop Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural SciencesZhanjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM), Geelong Technology PrecinctDeakin UniversityVictoriaAustralia
  4. 4.Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)Lucas HeightsAustralia

Personalised recommendations