Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 1939–1952 | Cite as

Comprehensive hormone profiling of the developing seeds of four grain legumes

  • Susan M. H. Slater
  • Hai Ying Yuan
  • Monika M. Lulsdorf
  • Albert Vandenberg
  • L. Irina Zaharia
  • Xiumei Han
  • Suzanne R. Abrams
Original Paper


Key message

Developmental context and species-specific hormone requirements are of key importance in the advancement of in vitro protocols and manipulation of seed development.


Improvement of in vitro tissue and cell culture protocols in grain legumes such as embryo rescue, interspecific hybridization, and androgenesis requires an understanding of the types, activity, and balance of hormones within developing seeds. Towards this goal, the concentration of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and abscisic acid (ABA) and their precursors and derivatives were measured in the developing seeds of field pea (Pisum sativum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) from 4 days after anthesis until 8 days after reaching maximum fresh weight. The importance of developmental context (developmental time and space) is demonstrated in both the differences and similarities between species for hormone profiles, especially with regard to cytokinin and ABA biosynthesis during the embryo formation. Auxin and its conjugates are significant during the pattern formation stage of all legumes; however, IAA-Asparagine appears important in the Vicieae species and its concentrations are greater than IAA from the globular stage of embryo development on in multi-seed fruits. Finally, the significance of non-polar gibberellins during lentil seed development is highlighted.


Abscisic acid Auxin Chickpea Cytokinin Seed development Faba bean Field pea Gibberellin Lentil 



Financial support for this project was provided by the Saskatchewan Agricultural Development Fund and Saskatchewan Pulse Growers. We acknowledge technical assistance from T. Ament, K. Arsenault, S.B. Mudiyanselage, V. Cekic, and M. Lafond.

Supplementary material

299_2013_1505_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan M. H. Slater
    • 1
  • Hai Ying Yuan
    • 1
  • Monika M. Lulsdorf
    • 1
  • Albert Vandenberg
    • 1
  • L. Irina Zaharia
    • 2
  • Xiumei Han
    • 2
  • Suzanne R. Abrams
    • 3
  1. 1.Crop Development Centre (CDC)University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.National Research Council of Canada-Saskatoon (NRCC-SK)SaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Saskatchewan Structural Sciences CentreUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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