Structural basis for cytokinin receptor signaling: an evolutionary approach
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Cytokinins are ubiquitous plant hormones; their signal is perceived by sensor histidine kinases—cytokinin receptors. This review focuses on recent advances on cytokinin receptor structure, in particular sensing module and adjacent domains which play an important role in hormone recognition, signal transduction and receptor subcellular localization. Principles of cytokinin binding site organization and point mutations affecting signaling are discussed. To date, more than 100 putative cytokinin receptor genes from different plant species were revealed due to the total genome sequencing. This allowed us to employ an evolutionary and bioinformatics approaches to clarify some new aspects of receptor structure and function. Non-transmembrane areas adjacent to the ligand-binding CHASE domain were characterized in detail and new conserved protein motifs were recovered. Putative mechanisms for cytokinin-triggered receptor activation were suggested.
KeywordsCytokinin Receptor CHASE domain PAS domain Transmembrane helix Consensus motifs Hormone signaling
We acknowledge the financial support from the Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and from grants of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), projects 11-04-00614, 11-04-90491 and 12-04-33282. We thank Dr A. Demidenko for the help in the bioinformatic research.
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