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Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 697–711 | Cite as

Molecular characterization of peach PR genes and their induction kinetics in response to bacterial infection and signaling molecules

  • S. Sherif
  • G. Paliyath
  • Subramanian Jayasankar
Original Paper

Abstract

‘Venture’ and ‘BabyGold 5’ are two peach cultivars with a demonstrated resistance and susceptibility, respectively, to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Xcp). To explore the differences between these cultivars at the molecular level, two PR1 (Pp-PR1a, Pp-PR1b) and three PR5 (Pp-TLP1, Pp-TLP2 and Pp-TLP3) genes were isolated from peach (Prunus persica L.) and investigated by in silico and in situ approaches. The analysis of gene expression by qRT-PCR indicated that all PR genes, except Pp-PR1a, were induced to a significantly higher degree in the resistant cultivar. In response to signaling molecules, Pp-PR1a was induced chiefly by SA treatment, while other PR genes were induced mainly by ethephon or MeJA treatments. The induction of the same set of PR genes in response to bacterial infection, MeJA or ethephon suggests the involvement of jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-signaling pathways in mediating resistance against Xcp, which is consistent with the potential hemibiotrophic nature of this bacterium. The identification of binding sites for ERF and MYC2 transcription factors in the promoter of Pp-TLP1 and Pp-TLP2 genes further supported the role of JA/ET pathways in the transcription regulation of these genes. The role of stomata in defense against Xcp was also investigated by measuring stomatal apertures in both ‘Venture’ and ‘BabyGold 5’ leaves after 1 and 3 HPI. While most stomata closed in both cultivars within 1 HPI, stomata reopened again at 3 HPI with a higher percentage recorded for ‘BabyGold 5’, suggesting a potential role of stomata in the susceptibility of this cultivar.

Keywords

PR genes Xanthomonascampestris pv. pruni Plant hormones Stomatal aperture Thaumatin-like proteins 

Abbreviations

aa

Amino acids

DPI

Days post-inoculation

ET

Ethylene

ETI

Effector-triggered immunity

DAMPs

Damage-associated molecular patterns

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

HPI

Hours post-inoculation

JA

Jasmonic acid

HPT

Hours post-treatment

PAMPs

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PTI

PAMP-triggered immunity

PR

Pathogenesis-related

SA

Salicylic acid

SAR

Systemic acquired resistance

TLPs

Thaumatin-like proteins

Xcp

Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. J. Tambong (AAFC-Ottawa, ON, Canada) for providing us with the bacterial strain and Dr. I. El-Sharkawy (VRIC, ON, Canada) for the pGreen binary vector. Work is supported by funds from the Ministry of Higher Education (Egypt; SS) and grant 026541 of Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Canada; SJ).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Sherif
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Paliyath
    • 2
  • Subramanian Jayasankar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant AgricultureUniversity of GuelphVineland StationCanada
  2. 2.Department of Plant AgricultureUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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