Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L.
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Hop is an important source of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. Some of these are pharmacologically active. Nevertheless, the concentration of some classes as flavonoids in wild-type plants is rather low. To enhance the production in hop, it would be interesting to modify the regulation of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. For this purpose, the regulatory factor PAP1/AtMYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. was introduced into hop plants cv. Tettnanger by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Twenty kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. It was shown that PAP1/AtMYB75 was stably incorporated and expressed in the hop genome. In comparison to the wild-type plants, the color of female flowers and cones of transgenic plants was reddish to pink. Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, α-acids and β-acids in transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants.
KeywordsHop Plant transcriptional factors Genetic transformation Secondary metabolites Flavonol glycosides Anthocyanins
Cauliflower mosaic virus
High-performance liquid chromatography
Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization
Murashige and Skoog medium
Tandem mass spectrometry
Neomycin phosphotransferase gene
Production of anthocyanin pigment 1
Photodiode array detection
The excellent technical assistance of Ute Born, Kathatrina Alheit and Carolin Aldinger is gratefully acknowledged, as well as the support of the Ministry of Nutrition and Agriculture of the State of Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart, Germany), Hop Growers Cooperative (Tettnang, Germany) and the Czech Science Foundation (project GACR 521/08/0740). Dr. Mohamed A. Farag thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for supporting the research at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry. The scholarship from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and partial support from the University of Costa Rica are gratefully acknowledged by A. Gatica.
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