Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 29, Issue 11, pp 1215–1225 | Cite as

Current trends and future prospects of biotechnological interventions through tissue culture in apple

  • Shammi Bhatti
  • Gopaljee JhaEmail author


Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed.


Micropropagation Disease resistance Apple scab Fruit quality Shelf life Transgenic Cisgenic Intragenic 





Indole-3-butyric acid


Indole-3-acetic acid


Gibbrellic acid






1-Naphthyl acetic acid


2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid


Abscisic acid


2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid



SB was supported by a research fellowship from the University Grants Commission, Govt of India. The inputs and suggestions given by PS Ahuja during manuscript preparation are acknowledged. The work has been supported by research funding from CSIR. Due to space constraints, we have not been able to cite the valuable work of several researchers in this review. IHBT publication number: 2046.


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© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biotechnology Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource TechnologyCouncil of Scientific and Industrial ResearchPalampurIndia

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