Plant Cell Reports

, 29:15 | Cite as

Isolation and promoter analysis of anther-specific genes encoding putative arabinogalactan proteins in Malus × domestica

  • Yeon-Ok Choi
  • Sung-Soo Kim
  • Sanghyeob Lee
  • Sunggil Kim
  • Gi-Bo Yoon
  • Hyojeong Kim
  • Young-Pyo Lee
  • Gyung-Hee Yu
  • Nam-In Hyung
  • Soon-Kee SungEmail author
Original Paper


In this study, we searched for anther-specific genes involved in male gametophyte development in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) by differential display-PCR. Three full-length cDNAs were isolated, and the corresponding genomic sequences were determined by genome walking. The identified genes showed intronless 228- to 264-bp open reading frames and shared 82–90% nucleotide sequence. Sequence analysis identified that they encoded a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and were designated MdAGP1, MdAGP2, and MdAGP3, respectively. RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR revealed that the MdAGP genes were selectively expressed in the stamen. Promoter analysis confirmed that the MdAGP3 promoter was capable of directing anther- or pollen-specific expression of the GUS reporter in tobacco and apple. Furthermore, expression of ribosome-inactivating protein under the control of the MdAGP3 promoter induced complete sporophytic male sterility as we had expected.


Apple (Malus × domesticaAnther specific gene Arabinogalactan protein Male-sterility induction 



Arabinogalactan protein




Open reading frame


Ribosome inactivating protein


Untranslated region



This work was supported by a grant (Code 20070301034011) from BioGreen21 program, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Supplementary material

299_2009_794_MOESM1_ESM.doc (238 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOC 237 kb)
299_2009_794_MOESM2_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 (DOC 30 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yeon-Ok Choi
    • 1
  • Sung-Soo Kim
    • 1
  • Sanghyeob Lee
    • 1
  • Sunggil Kim
    • 2
  • Gi-Bo Yoon
    • 1
  • Hyojeong Kim
    • 1
  • Young-Pyo Lee
    • 1
  • Gyung-Hee Yu
    • 4
  • Nam-In Hyung
    • 3
  • Soon-Kee Sung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biotech Research Team, Dongbu Advanced Research InstituteDongbu HiTek Co., LtdDaejeonKorea
  2. 2.Department of Plant Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research InstituteChonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea
  3. 3.Department of Plant Science and TechnologySangmyung UniversityChonanKorea
  4. 4.Metrology and Measurement Division, Agency for Technology and StandardsMinistry of Knowledge EconomyGwacheonKorea

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