Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 1215–1234 | Cite as

Optimization of the transient transformation of Catharanthus roseus cells by particle bombardment and its application to the subcellular localization of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase and geraniol 10-hydroxylase

  • Grégory Guirimand
  • Vincent Burlat
  • Audrey Oudin
  • Arnaud Lanoue
  • Benoit St-Pierre
  • Vincent Courdavault
Original Paper

Abstract

The monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIA) synthesized in Catharanthus roseus are highly valuable metabolites due to their pharmacological properties. In planta, the MIA biosynthetic pathway exhibits a complex compartmentation at the cellular level, whereas subcellular data are sparse. To gain insight into this level of organization, we have developed a high efficiency green fluorescent protein (GFP) imaging approach to systematically localize MIA biosynthetic enzymes within C. roseus cells following a biolistic-mediated transient transformation. The biolistic transformation protocol has been first optimized to obtain a high number of transiently transformed cells with a ~12-fold increase compared to previous protocols and thus to clearly and easily identify the fusion GFP expression patterns in numerous cells. On the basis of this protocol, the subcellular localization of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS), a methyl erythritol phosphate pathway enzyme and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), a monoterpene-secoiridoid pathway enzyme has been next characterized. Besides showing the accumulation of HDS within plastids of C. roseus cells, we also provide evidences of the presence of HDS in long stroma-filled thylakoid-free extensions budding from plastids, i.e. stromules that are in close association with other organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondria in agreement with their proposed function in enhancing interorganelle metabolite exchanges. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that G10H is an ER-anchored protein, consistent with the presence of a transmembrane helix at the G10H N-terminal end, which is both necessary and sufficient to drive the ER anchoring.

Keywords

Biolistic Catharanthus roseus Geraniol 10-hydroxylase (CYP76B6) GFP Methyl erythritol phosphate pathway Monoterpene indole alkaloids 

Abbreviations

C. roseus

Catharanthus roseus

DAPI

Diamidino-2-phenylindole

DIC

Differential interference contrast

DMAPP

Dimethylallyl diphosphate

DXR

1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase

DXS

1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

G10H

Geraniol 10-hydroxylase (CYP76B6)

HDS

Hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase

IPAP

Internal phloem-associated parenchyma

IPP

Isopentenyl diphosphate

MECS

Methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-diphosphate synthase

MEP

Methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate

MIA

Monoterpene indole alkaloids

NAA

Naphthalene acetic acid

OSER

Organized smooth ER

PRX1

Class III peroxidase isoenzyme

SGD

Strictosidine β-d-glucosidase

SLS

Secologanin synthase (CYP72A1)

spG10H

ER targeting signal peptide and anchoring transmembrane helix of G10H

STR

Strictosidine synthase

TDC

Tryptophan decarboxylase

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

YFP

Yellow fluorescent protein

ΔspG10H

Truncated variant of G10H lacking the ER anchoring transmembrane helix

Supplementary material

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Supplemental data 1 (JPG 1,046 kb)

299_2009_722_Fig9_ESM.jpg (2.1 mb)

Supplemental data 2 (JPG 2.11 mb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grégory Guirimand
    • 1
  • Vincent Burlat
    • 1
  • Audrey Oudin
    • 1
  • Arnaud Lanoue
    • 1
  • Benoit St-Pierre
    • 1
  • Vincent Courdavault
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Université François Rabelais de Tours, EA 2106 “Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales”, IFR 135 “Imagerie fonctionnelle”ToursFrance
  2. 2.Université François Rabelais de Tours, EA 2106 “Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales”, UFR des Sciences et TechniquesToursFrance

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