Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 627–638 | Cite as

Ginsenoside Rb1 in asymmetric somatic hybrid calli of Daucus carota with Panax quinquefolius

  • Lu Han
  • Chuanen Zhou
  • Junying Shi
  • Daying Zhi
  • Guangmin Xia
Genetic Transformation and Hybridization


American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is one of the most valuable herbs in the world. Its major active components are ginsenosides. In order to produce ginsenoside heterogeneously, somatic hybridization, a novel approach for genetic introgression, was employed in this study. Protoplasts derived from respective calli of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus Hoffm.) and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.) were used as the fusion partners. Hybrid calli derived from single cell lines containing chromatin of American ginseng were confirmed by the analyses of isozyme, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the ginseng monomer Rb1 was synthesized in seven of the hybrid calli identified as well as in the parent American ginseng calli but not in the parent carrot calli. Results indicated that hybrid introgression lines could produce ginsenoside Rb1 and the ginsenoside Rb1 biosynthesis pathway has been introgressed into carrot cells via somatic hybridization. From the point of biosafety view concerning the consumer acceptance, the potential predominance to produce ginsenosides with somatic hybridization other than with genetic transformation is discussed.


American ginseng Carrot Somatic hybridization Introgression cell line Ginsenoside Rb1 



2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid




Genomic in situ hybridization


High performance liquid chromatography


Indoleacetic acid


Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


Polyethylene glycol


Random amplified polymorphic DNA



This work is supported by the National Basic Research 973 Program of People’s Republic of China (No. 2007CB108802) and the National Key Technology R&D Program of People’s Republic of China (No. 2007BAD59B06). We are grateful to Dr. Aifen Zhou (Oklahoma University, USA), Dr. Yongzhen Pang (Noble Foundation, USA) and Mr. Steven Tudor (Noble Foundation, USA) for their revisions and language corrections.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lu Han
    • 1
  • Chuanen Zhou
    • 1
    • 3
  • Junying Shi
    • 2
  • Daying Zhi
    • 1
  • Guangmin Xia
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Traditional Chinese MedicineShandong University of Traditional Chinese MedicineJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Forage Improvement DivisionSamuel Roberts Noble FoundationArdmoreUSA

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