Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 397–406 | Cite as

Production of purple-colored creeping bentgrass using maize transcription factor genes Pl and Lc through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

  • Yun-Jeong Han
  • Yong-Min Kim
  • Jee-Yeon Lee
  • Soo Jung Kim
  • Kyu-Chang Cho
  • Thummala Chandrasekhar
  • Pill-Soon Song
  • Young-Min Woo
  • Jeong-Il Kim
Genetic Transformation and Hybridization

Abstract

Purple-colored transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) plants were developed for ornamental purpose by means of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Embryogenic creeping bentgrass calli were transformed with the pCAMBIA 3301 vector harboring maize (Zea mays) flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway transcription factor genes, Lc (Leaf color) and Pl (Purple leaf), individually and in combination, and three types of putative transgenic plants (Lc, Pl, and Lc + Pl) were generated. Genomic integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by Southern and northern blot analyses, respectively. The transgenic creeping bentgrass plants expressing both Lc and Pl genes were entirely purple, whereas those expressing Pl alone had purple stems and those expressing Lc alone lacked purple pigmentation in adult plants. The anthocyanin content was estimated in all the three types of transgenic plant and correlated well with the degree of purple coloration observed. These results suggest that both Lc and Pl genes are necessary and sufficient to confer purple coloration to creeping bentgrass.

Keywords

Agrobacterium Anthocyanin Creeping bentgrass Lc Pl Transformation 

References

  1. Boase MR, Bradley JM, Borst NK (1998) Genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens of florists’ chrysanthemum (Dendranthema × Grandiflorum) cultivar “Peach Margaret”. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 34:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonos SA, Plumley KA, Meyer WA (2002) Ploidy determination in Agrotis using flow cytometry and morphological traits. Crop Sci 42:192–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bovy A, de Vos R, Kemper M, Schijlen E, Pertejo MA, Muir S, Collins G, Robinson S, Verhoeyen M, Hughes S, Santos-Buelga C, van Tunen A (2002) High-Flavonol tomatoes resulting from the heterologous expression of the maize transcription factor genes LC and C1. Plant Cell 14:2509–2526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley JM, Davies KM, Deroles SC, Bloor SJ, Lewis DH (1998) The maize Lc regulatory gene up-regulates the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway of Petunia. Plant J 13:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chai B, Sticklen MB (1998) Applications of biotechnology in turfgrass genetic improvement. Crop Sci 38:1320–1338Google Scholar
  6. Chai ML, Wang BL, Kim JY, Lee JM, Kim DH (2003) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 4:346–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen H, Nelson RS, Sherwood JL (1994) Enhanced recovery of transformants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens after freeze-thaw transformation and drug selection. Biotechniques 16:664–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng M, Lowe BA, Spencer TM, Ye X, Armstrong CL (2004) Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocotyledonous species. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 40:31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cone KC, Cocciolone SM, Burr FA, Burr B (1993) Maize anthocyanin regulatory gene pl is a duplicate of c1 that functions in the plant. Plant Cell 5:1795–1805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dai S, Zheng P, Marmey P, Zhang S, Tian W, Chen S, Beachy RN, Fauquet C (2001) Comparative analysis of transgenic rice plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment. Mol Breed 7:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dooner HK, Robbins TP, Jorgensen RA (1991) Genetic and developmental control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Annu Rev Genet 25:173–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fu D, Tisserat NA, Xiao Y, Settle D, Muthukrishnan S, Liang GH (2005) Overexpression of rice TLPD34 enhances dollar-spot resistance in transgenic bentgrass. Plant Sci 168:671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fu D, Huang B, Xiao Y, Muthukrishnan S, Liang GH (2007) Overexpression of barley hva1 gene in creeping bentgrass for improving drought resistance. Plant Cell Rep 26:467–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldsbrough AP, Tong Y, Yoder JI, Tong Y (1996) Lc as a non-destructive visual reporter and transposition excision marker gene for tomato. Plant J 9:927–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harborne JB, Williams CA (2001) Anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Nat Prod Rep 18:310–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hartman CL, Lee L, Day RR, Tumer NE (1994) Herbicide resistant turfgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) by biolistic transformation. Bio/Technology 12:919–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holton TA, Cornish EC (1995) Genetics and biochemistry of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7:1071–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jefferson RA (1987) Assaying chimeric genes in plants: the GUS gene fusion system. Plant Mol Biol Rep 5:387–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim SJ, Lee JY, Kim YM, Yang SS, Hwang OJ, Hong NJ, Kim KM, Lee HY, Song PS, Kim JI (2007) Agrobacterium-mediated high efficiency transformation of creeping bentgrass with herbicide resistance. J Plant Biol 50:577–585Google Scholar
  20. Lee L (1996) Turfgrass biotechnology. Plant Sci 115:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li SJ, Deng XM, Mao HZ, Hong Y (2005) Enhanced anthocyanin synthesis in foliage plant Caladium bicolor. Plant Cell Rep 23:716–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li H, Flachowsky H, Fischer TC, Hanke MV, Forkmann G, Treutter D, Schwab W, Hoffmann T, Szankowski I (2007) Maize Lc transcription factor enhances biosynthesis of anthocyanins, distinct proanthocyanidins and phenylpropanoids in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Planta 226:1243–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liang GH, Skinner DZ (2004) Genetically modified crops: their development, uses, and risks. Food Product Press, An Imprint of the Haworth Press Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Lloyd AM, Walbot V, Davis RW (1992) Arabidopsis and Nicotiana anthocyanin production activated by maize regulators R and C1. Science 258:1773–1775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ludwig SR, Wessler SR (1990) Maize R gene family: tissue-specific heleix-loop-helix proteins. Cell 62:849–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ludwig SR, Habera LF, Dellaporta ST, Wessler SR (1989) Lc, a member of the maze R gene family responsible for tissue-specific anthocyanin production, encodes a protein similar to transcriptional activators and contains the myc-homolgy region. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7092–7096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luo H, Hu Q, Nelson K, Longo C, Kausch AP, Chandlee JM, Wipff JK, Fricker CR (2004) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) transformation using phosphinothricin selection results in a high frequency of single-copy transgene integration. Plant Cell Rep 22:645–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pilu R, Piazza P, Petroni K, Ronchi A, Martin C, Tonelli C (2003) pl-bol3, a complex allele of the anthocyanin regulatory pl1 locus that arose in a naturally occurring maize populations. Plant J 36:510–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quattrocchio F, Wing JF, Leppen HTC, Mol JNM, Koes R (1993) Regulatory genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation are functionally conserved among plant species and have distinct sets of target genes. Plant Cell 5:1497–1512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Quattrocchio F, Wing JF, van der Woude K, Mol JNM, Koes R (1998) Analysis of bHLH and MYB domain proteins: species-specific regulatory differences are caused by divergent evolution of target anthocyanin genes. Plant J 13:475–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ray H, Yu M, Auser P, Blahut-Beatty L, McKersie B, Bowley S, Westcott N, Coulman B, Lloyd A, Gruber MY (2003) Expression of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins after transformation of alfalfa with Maize Lc. Plant Physiol 132:1448–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 3rd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Springob K, Nakajima J, Yamazaki M, Saito K (2003) Recent advances in the biosynthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins. Nat Prod Rep 20:288–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tanaka Y, Sasaki N, Ohmiya A (2008) Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. Plant J 54:733–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Travella S, Ross SM, Harden J, Everett C, Snape JW, Harwood WA (2005) A comparison of transgenic barley lines produced particle bombardment and Agrobacterium mediated techniques. Plant Cell Rep 23:780–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang Z, Hopkins A, Mian R (2001) Forage and turf grass biotechnology. Crit Rev Plant Sci 20:573–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Warnke S (2003) Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). In: Casler MD, Duncan RR (eds) Turfgrass biology, genetics, and breeding. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 175–185Google Scholar
  39. Winkel-Shirley B (2001) Flavonoid biosynthesis. A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology. Plant Physiol 126:485–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yu TT, Skinner DZ, Liang GH, Trick HN, Huang B, Muthukrishnan S (2000) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of creeping bentgrass using GFP as a reporter gene. Hereditas 133:229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhong H, Boyland MG, Srinivasan C, Sticklen MB (1993) Transgenic plants of turfgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) from microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic callus. Plant Cell Rep 13:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun-Jeong Han
    • 1
  • Yong-Min Kim
    • 1
  • Jee-Yeon Lee
    • 1
  • Soo Jung Kim
    • 1
  • Kyu-Chang Cho
    • 1
  • Thummala Chandrasekhar
    • 1
    • 3
  • Pill-Soon Song
    • 2
    • 3
  • Young-Min Woo
    • 4
  • Jeong-Il Kim
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and Kumho Life Science LaboratoryChonnam National UniversityGwangjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Faculty of Biotechnology and Subtropical Horticulture Research InstituteCheju National UniversityJejuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research CenterGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Life SciencePohang University of Science and TechnologyPohangRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations