Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 61–71

DNA amounts of roses (Rosa L.) and their use in attributing ploidy levels

Genetics and Genomics

Abstract

The aims of the investigation were to characterise variability among the DNA amounts of roses and assess the predictability of ploidy levels from DNA amounts. Chromosome numbers in the genus Rosa range from 2n = 2x = 14 to 2n = 8x = 56 and aneuploidy is rare. Published 2C DNA amounts range from 0.78 pg in R. xanthina Lindl. and R. sericea Lindl. (2n = 2x = 14) to 2.91 pg in R. canina L. (2n = 5x = 35). In this investigation, DNA amounts were estimated by flow cytometry of leaf nuclei stained with propidium iodide, using Petroselinum crispum (2C DNA amount = 4.46 pg) as the internal calibration standard. Ploidy levels based on DNA amounts (DNA ploidy) were assigned by comparing their DNA amounts with published DNA amounts and identifying peaks and intervening discontinuities in frequency distributions of DNA amounts. 2C DNA amounts ranged from 0.83 pg in R. ecae (2x = 2x = 14) to 3.99 pg in R. acicularis (2n = 8x = 56). Differences in the 1Cx-values (2C DNA amount/ploidy values) were found among the taxonomic sections of Rosa. Ploidy levels could be confidently assigned to most species and cultivars, but the ploidy of some specimens in the section Caninae was uncertain for reasons attributed to genomic diversity and aneuploidy. Cytochimerism was detected in three cultivars of R. × alba. DNA ploidy was determined in 384 specimens representing 74 species and 5 horticultural classes.

Keywords

Aneuploidy Cytochimerism DNA amounts Ploidy Rosa 

Supplementary material

299_2008_615_MOESM1_ESM.doc (716 kb)
MOESM1 [INSERT CAPTION HERE] (DOC 716 kb)

References

  1. Akasaka M, Ueda Y, Koba T (2003) Karyotype analysis of wild rose species belonging to septets B, C and D by molecular cytogenetic method. Breed Sci 53:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allum JF, Bringloe DH, Roberts AV (2007) Chromosome doubling in a Rosa rugosa Thunb. hybrid by exposure of in vitro nodes to oryzalin: the effects of node length, oryzalin concentration and exposure time. Plant Cell Rep 26:1977–1984. doi:10.1007/s00299-007-0411-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brumme H, Gladis Th (2006) Vorarbeiten zur Inventarisierung pflanzengenetischer Ressourcen in Deutschland—Die Wildrosen (Gattung Rosa L.) im Europa-Rosarium Sangerhausen. In: Europa-Rosarium Sangerhausen (ed) Wildrosenverzeichnis, 5th edn. Möbius, Artern, pp 64–106Google Scholar
  4. Brumme H, Gladis Th (2007) Vorarbeiten zur Inventarisierung pflanzengenetischer Ressourcen in Deutschland—Die Wildrosen (Gattung Rosa L.) im Europa-Rosarium Sangerhausen, nach ihrer Verwandtschaft geordnet, 6th edn. http://rosarium-verein.de/cmsupload/Wildrosenverzeichnis.pdf, http://www.das-rosen-netzwerk.de/index.php?seite=drn_wrers
  5. Cairns T (ed) (2003) Modern roses XI. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  6. Cave MS (ed) (1958–1960) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1956–1959 series. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  7. Crane YM, Byrne DH (2003) Karyology. In: Roberts AV, Debener T, Gudin S (eds) Encyclopedia of rose science. Elsevier/Academic, London, pp 267–273Google Scholar
  8. Darlington CD, Wylie AP (1955) Chromosome atlas of flowering plants, 2nd edn. Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Doležel J, Greilhuber J, Suda J (2007) Estimation of nuclear DNA content in plants using flow cytometry. Nat Protoc 2:2223–2244. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.310 Google Scholar
  10. Goldblatt P, Johnson DE (eds) (2006) Index to plant chromosome numbers 2001–2003. Missouri Botanic Garden, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  11. Greilhuber J (1988) ‘Self-tanning’—a new and important source of stoichiometric error in cytophotometric determination of nuclear DNA content in plants. Plant Syst Evol 158:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greilhuber J, Doležel J, Lysák MA, Bennett MD (2005) The origin, evolution and proposed stabilization of the terms ‚genome size and ‚c-value to describe nuclear DNA contents. Ann Bot 95:255–260. doi:10.1093/aob/mci019 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gudin S (2000) Rose: genetics and breeding. Plant Breed Rev 17:159–189Google Scholar
  14. Hanson L, Boyd A, Johnson MAT, Bennett MD (2005) First nuclear DNA C-values for 18 Eudicot families. Ann Bot 96:1315–1320. doi:10.1093/aob/mci283 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lim KY, Werlemark G, Matyasek R, Bringloe JB, Sieber V, El Mokadem H, Meynet J, Hemming J, Leitch AR, Roberts AV (2005) Evolutionary implications of permanent odd polyploidy in the stable sexual, pentaploid of Rosa canina L. Heredity 94:501–506. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800648 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Missouri Botanic Garden (1978–2000) Index to plant chromosome numbers. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/search/ipcn.html
  17. Moore RJ (ed) (1970–1974) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1968–1972 series. Bohn and Scheltema for the International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  18. Ornduff R (ed) (1967–1969) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1965–1967 series. Bohn and Scheltema for the International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  19. Ornduff R (ed) (1977) Index to plant chromosome numbers 1973–1974 series. Bohn and Scheltema for the International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  20. Roberts AV (1977) Relationships between species in the genus Rosa section Pimpinellifoliae. Bot J Linn Soc 74:309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Roberts AV (2007) The use of bead beating to prepare suspensions of nuclei for flow cytometry from fresh leaves, herbarium leaves, petals and pollen. Cytometry A 71A:1039–1044. doi:10.1002/cyto.a.20486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sokal RR, Rolfe FJ (1995) Biometry, 3rd edn. WH Freeman and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Suda J, Krahulcova A, Travnicek P, Krahulec F (2006) Ploidy level versus DNA ploidy level: an appeal for consistent terminology. Taxon 55:447–450Google Scholar
  24. Thomas GS (1994) The Graham Stuart Thomas rose book. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Werlemark G (2003) Inheritance in the dog rose. In: Roberts AV, Debener T, Gudin S (eds) Encyclopedia of rose science. Elsevier/Academic, London, pp 292–299Google Scholar
  26. Wylie AP (1954) The history of garden roses. J Roy Hortic Soc 79:555–571Google Scholar
  27. Wylie AP (1955a) The history of garden roses. Part 2. J Roy Hortic Soc 80:8–24Google Scholar
  28. Wylie AP (1955b) The history of garden roses. Part 3. J Roy Hortic Soc 80:77–87Google Scholar
  29. Yokoya K, Roberts AV, Mottley J, Lewis R, Brandham PE (2000) Nuclear DNA amounts in roses. Ann Bot 85:557–561. doi:10.1006/ambo.1999 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health and BioscienceUniversity of East LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Europa-RosariumSangerhausenGermany
  3. 3.Eichstetten am KaiserstuhlGermany

Personalised recommendations