Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 2009–2015 | Cite as

Characterization of tryptamine 5-hydroxylase and serotonin synthesis in rice plants

Physiology and Biochemistry

Abstract

Serotonin is a well-known pineal hormone that in mammals plays a key role in mood. In plants, serotonin is implicated in several physiological roles such as flowering, morphogenesis, and adaptation to environmental changes. However, its biosynthetic enzyme in plants has not been characterized. Therefore, we measured the serotonin content and enzyme activity responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in rice seedlings. Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), which converts tryptamine into serotonin, was found as a soluble enzyme that had maximal activity in the roots. The maximal activity of T5H was closely associated with the enriched synthesis of serotonin in roots. Tetrahydropterine-dependent T5H activity was inhibited by tyramine, tryptophan, 5-OH-tryptophan, and octopamine, but remained unaltered by dopamine in vitro. The tissues of rice seedlings grown in the presence of tryptamine exhibited a dose-dependent increase in serotonin in parallel with enhanced T5H enzyme activity. However, no significant increase in serotonin was observed in rice tissues grown in the presence of tryptophan, suggesting that tryptamine is a bottleneck intermediate substrate for serotonin synthesis.

Keywords

5-OH-tryptophan Octopamine Serotonin Tryptamine Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase 

Abbreviations

AADC

Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase

FW

Fresh weight

T5H

Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase

TDC

Tryptophan decarboxylase

TPH

Tryptophan hydroxylase

Trp

Tryptophan

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Agricultural Plant Stress Research CenterBiotechnology Research Institute, Chonnam National UniversityGwangjuSouth Korea

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