Validity and reliability of the ten-item Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10) instrument in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) in Singapore
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We aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the ten-item Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10) in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) in Singapore. We used cross-sectional data from 108 patients with axSpA recruited from a dedicated axSpA clinic in a Singapore tertiary referral hospital from 2017 to 2018. Analyses were guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) framework. Face validity was assessed through cognitive debriefing interviews (CDIs). Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha. Test–retest reliability was assessed through intraclass correlation (ICC). Measurement error was assessed through smallest detectable change (SDC). Construct validity was assessed through six a priori hypotheses through correlation of the CD-RISC10 score with other patient-reported outcome measures. Structural validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Fit indices evaluated were root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker–Lewis index (TFI), and standardized root-mean-squared residual (SRMR). Ten patients completed the CDIs and face validity was supported. Among 108 patients (median age: 37(21–77), 81.5% males, 93.5% Chinese), the CD-RISC10 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94), and excellent test–retest reliability [ICC = 0.964 (95% CI 0.937–0.980)]. SDC was calculated as 1.88. Construct validity was established by meeting five out of the six a priori hypotheses. Structural validity was supported as CFA confirmed a one-factor model, with adequate fit statistics after adding three covariances (RMSEA = 0.077; CFI = 0.975; TLI = 0.964; SRMR = 0.036). This study supports the CD-RISC10 as a valid and reliable measure of resilience for use in patients with axSpA.
KeywordsAxial spondyloarthritis Resilience CD-RISC Validation Singapore
YHK, TO, WF, and JT conceived and designed this study. JKP, AN, WF, NLL and YYL acquired the data for this study. AN, KKL and YHK performed the analyses and prepared the first draft of the manuscript. CST advised the statistical analyses. KKL, CST, EHC, and NLL interpreted the results. All authors read, revised critically, and approved the final manuscript.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no other conflict of interest to disclose.
The SingHealth Centralised Institutional Review Board approved this research. All patients provided written informed consent to participate in this research.
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