Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Osteoarthritis Quality of Life (OAQoL) questionnaire for use in Portugal
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent rheumatic disease and is a leading cause of decreased quality of life (QoL). The OA Quality of Life questionnaire (OAQoL) is an OA-specific patient-reported outcome measures. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the original UK English version of the Osteoarthritis Quality of Life (OAQoL) questionnaire into European Portuguese. The translation of the questionnaire was carried out according to a dual panel methodology (bilingual panel followed by lay panel). This was followed by cognitive debriefing interviews (CDIs) with OA patients to assess comprehension and relevance of the translated questionnaire. Finally, a validation survey was conducted to assess its psychometric properties. The Portuguese OAQoL, a comparator scale (the Nottingham Health Profile—NHP) as well as questions relating to demographic and disease information were administered to OA patients. A sub-sample of patients also completed the Portuguese OAQoL two weeks later, to assess test–retest reliability. The internal consistency, construct validity and known group validity (according to perceived OA severity) of the scale was also assessed. Both the bilingual and lay panels consisted of five individuals and no major difficulties relating to the translation process were identified. A total of ten patients with OA participated in the CDIs. The mean time to complete the questionnaire was 5 min. These interviews revealed that the Portuguese version of the OAQoL was clear, relevant and easy to complete. Finally, 53 OA patients (44 females; mean age of 67.6 years) completed the validation survey. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.87, demonstrating high internal consistency. Test–retest reliability, assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, was 0.86. Moderate correlations were found with the majority of the NHP sections, providing evidence of construct validity. Significant differences in OAQoL scores were found between patients who differed according to their perceived OA severity, providing evidence of known group validity. The Portuguese version of the OAQoL is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used to assess QoL in OA, both in clinical practice and for research purposes.
KeywordsQuality of life Osteoarthritis Patient-reported outcome measures Degenerative arthritis Osteoarthritis Quality of Life questionnaire OAQoL
João Lagoas Gomes actively participated in the translation panels, cognitive debriefing interviews, validation survey, data collection and analyses, as well as drafting and revising the manuscript and approved its final version. Ana Filipa Agueda actively participated in the translation panels, cognitive debriefing interviews, validation survey, data collection and analyses, as well as drafting and revising the manuscript and approved its final version. Alice Heaney coordinated the translation panels, performed data analysis, drafted and revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Cátia Duarte actively participated in the translation panels, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Carina Lopes recruited participants, actively participated in the validation surveys, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Tiago Costa recruited participants, actively participated in the validation surveys, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. José Marona recruited participants, actively participated in the validation surveys, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Santiago Rodrigues-Manica recruited participants, actively participated in the validation surveys, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Sara Maia performed data collection, study coordination, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Manuela Costa actively recruited participants, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Jaime C Branco recruited participants, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Stephen P McKenna coordinated and overviewed the translation panels, performed data analysis, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Anabela Barcelos actively participated in the translation panels, revised the manuscript and approved its final version. Fernando M. Pimentel-Santos actively participated and recruited participants to the cognitive debriefing interviews, validation survey, revised the manuscript and approved its final version.
This study did not receive research grants.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
João Lagoas Gomes, Ana Filipa Águeda, Alice Heaney, Cátia Duarte, Carina Lopes, Tiago Costa, José Marona, Santiago Rodrigues-Manica, Sara Maia, Manuela Costa, Jaime C Branco, Stephen P McKenna, Anabela Barcelos and, Fernando M. Pimentel-Santos declare they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the cognitive debriefing interviews and in the validation survey.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. It was approved by the local ethics committee.
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