Rheumatology International

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Rheumatology in Egypt: back to the future

  • Tamer A. GheitaEmail author
  • Nahla N. Eesa


Medical knowledge in ancient Egypt had a remarkable reputation since rulers of other empires used to request the pharaoh to send them their best physician to treat their beloved ones. Many rheumatologic conditions as giant-cell arteritis, reactive arthritis and other forms of spondyloarthritis have been identified in ancient Egyptian materials. Rheumatologists in Egypt are enormously expanding and mastering the tools that aid them in enhancing the management of rheumatic diseases. More Egyptian rheumatologists are actively participating in the annual European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and American College of Rheumatology conferences and those attached to well known state of the art centers are increasing. EULAR certified Egyptian MSUS trainers are effectively performing regionally. This review throws light on the rheumatology practice in Egypt, its progress from ancient times passing through Egyptian medical healthcare services, education systems for rheumatologists, rheumatology associations, an overview on the spectrum of rheumatic diseases through publications in the field till future perspectives. Rheumatology in Egypt is an actively growing and dynamic specialty of medicine with considerable contributions to the world’s literature. These days, persistent efforts are mandatory to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologics, to develop tailored and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of the exponentially increasing Egyptian population. Opportunities and challenges discussed high-lighten future perspectives needed to boost the rheumatology practice in Egypt.


Egypt Rheumatology Rheumatologists Practice Research 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Mohamed N. Salem (Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Beni-Sueif University and General Secretary of the Egyptian Society of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology), Dr. Nevin Hammam (Lecturer of Rheumatology, Assuit University and Consultant at University of Alberta, Canada) and Dr. Mohamed H. Abu-Zaid (Lecturer of Rheumatology, Tanta University) for their valuable inputs and revision of the review. Acknowledgement cordially extends to Professor Armen Y. Gasparyan in helping enhance the scientific writing of a biomedical review.


No source of funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not include any human participants and/or animals.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rheumatology Department, Faculty of MedicineCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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