The role of genetics and epigenetics in rheumatic diseases: are they really a target to be aimed at?

Expert Opinion
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Abstract

To date, numerous genetic and epigenetic studies have been performed and provided a crucial step forward in our understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. However, most of the recent advances in the treatment of rheumatic diseases including biological therapies are not based on or even discrepant from these genetic and epigenetic findings. For example, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are quite successful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Behçet’s disease (BD), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) but not in that of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), conversely, RA shares genetic backgrounds more with SLE, SSc, SS and AAV than BD, AS and PsA. In this review, we briefly highlight the findings from recent genetic and epigenetic studies and discuss what needs to be studied to provide a novel, more efficacious management of rheumatic diseases.

Keywords

Rheumatic diseases Genetics GWAS Epigenetics 

Notes

Author contributions

MK wrote the manuscript. SY and TA critically reviewed and revised the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author MK declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author SY declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author TA declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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