Rheumatology International

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 29–42 | Cite as

An overview of treatment approaches for chronic pain management

  • Nicholas Hylands-WhiteEmail author
  • Rui V. Duarte
  • Jon H. Raphael
Review Therapy


Pain which persists after healing is expected to have taken place, or which exists in the absence of tissue damage, is termed chronic pain. By definition chronic pain cannot be treated and cured in the conventional biomedical sense; rather, the patient who is suffering from the pain must be given the tools with which their long-term pain can be managed to an acceptable level. This article will provide an overview of treatment approaches available for the management of persistent non-malignant pain. As well as attempting to provide relief from the physical aspects of pain through the judicious use of analgesics, interventions, stimulations, and irritations, it is important to pay equal attention to the psychosocial complaints which almost always accompany long-term pain. The pain clinic offers a biopsychosocial approach to treatment with the multidisciplinary pain management programme; encouraging patients to take control of their pain problem and lead a fulfilling life in spite of the pain.


Chronic pain Pain management Biopsychosocial Psychology 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

NHW, RVD, and JHR declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas Hylands-White
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Rui V. Duarte
    • 2
  • Jon H. Raphael
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Health Education and Life SciencesBirmingham City UniversityBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Institute of Applied Health ResearchUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  3. 3.Department of Pain ManagementRussells Hall HospitalDudleyUK
  4. 4.Welwyn Garden CityUK

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