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Rheumatology International

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 169–182 | Cite as

Innate immune cells in the pathogenesis of primary systemic vasculitis

  • Durga Prasanna Misra
  • Vikas Agarwal
Review Article - Pathogenesis Reviews

Abstract

Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against foreign substances. Neutrophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, γδ T cells, natural killer and natural killer T cells comprise the innate immune system. Genetic polymorphisms influencing the activation of innate immune cells predispose to development of vasculitis and influence its severity. Abnormally activated innate immune cells cross-talk with other cells of the innate immune system, present antigens more efficiently and activate T and B lymphocytes and cause tissue destruction via cell-mediated cytotoxicity and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines further recruit other cells to the sites of vascular injury. They are involved in both the initiation as well as the perpetuation of vasculitis. Evidences suggest reversal of aberrant activation of immune cells in response to therapy. Understanding the role of innate immune cells in vasculitis helps understand the potential of therapeutic modulation of their activation to treat vasculitis.

Keywords

Pathogenesis Vasculitis Innate immunity Myeloid cells Monocytes Platelets 

Abbreviations

AAV

ANCA-associated vasculitis

ADA

Adenosine deaminase

ANCA

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

AxV

Annexin V

BD

Behcet’s disease

BVAS

Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score

CCL

Chemokine ligand

CCR

Chemokine receptor

CD

Cluster of differentiation

CD40L

CD 40 ligand

CECR

Cat eye syndrome chromosome region

DAMP

Disease-associated molecular pattern

DC

Dendritic cells

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ECP

Eosinophil cationic protein

EGPA

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FcγR

Fc gamma receptor

GCA

Giant cell arteritis

γδ T cells

Gamma delta T cells

GPA

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

GWAS

Genome-wide associated studies

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

HMGB

High mobility group box

HSP

Henoch–Schonlein purpura

IFN

Interferon

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IL

Interleukin

IVIG

Intravenous immunoglobulin

KD

Kawasaki’s disease

LAMP

Lysosomal associated membrane protein

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAP

Mitogen-activated protein

MDC

Myeloid dendritic cell

MPA

Microscopic polyangiitis

MPO

Myeloperoxidase

mRNA

Microribonucleic acid

NET

Neutrophil extracellular traps

NOD

Non-obese diabetic

NK cell

Natural killer cell

NKT cell

Natural killer T cell

PDC

Plasmacytoid dendritic cell

PI3K

Phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase

PMA

Phorbol myristate acetate

PMP

Platelet-derived microparticles

PR-3

Proteinase-3

RAG

Recombinase-associated gene

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycation end products

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficiency

TA

Takayasu’s arteritis

TCR

T cell receptor

Th

Helper T lymphocytes

TLR

Toll-like receptor

Treg

T regulatory cells

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr Armen Yuri Gasparyan for his valuable inputs into the search strategy and improvement of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical ImmunologySanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

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