Rheumatology International

, Volume 31, Issue 12, pp 1539–1544

Cytokine modulators in the treatment of sarcoidosis



Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous lung disease in which several cytokines play a pivotal pathogenetic role. Steroid-resistant disease can be treated with immunosuppressive drugs, antimalarial therapies and recently with anti-TNFα agents. The use of biological agents for the treatment of sarcoidosis springs from research into the pathogenesis of the disease and also from the experience of rheumatologists with other chronic inflammatory diseases. Rituximab, golimumab and ustekinumab are cytokine modulators, useful in the treatment of immunoinflammatory disorders, for which randomized trials to evaluate safety and efficacy in sarcoidosis are not yet available. Novel anticytokine drugs administered alone or in association may offer a new approach to treatment of the disease. This review focuses on recent advances in anti-TNFα agents and cytokine modulators for the treatment of sarcoidosis and their therapeutic prospects.


Sarcoidosis Pharmacological treatments 



Bronchoalveolar lavage


Tumour necrosis factor


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Respiratory Diseases Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunology SciencesSiena University, Le Scotte HospitalSienaItaly

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