The budding yeast cohesin gene SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 genetically interacts with PKA, CDK and APC
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Cohesin is a protein that plays a key role in the cohesion and separation of sister chromatids. During the duplication of chromatids, cohesin holds sister chromatids together until the onset of anaphase, and thereby prevents the premature separation of sister chromatids which would otherwise jeopardize the faithful segregation of chromosomes. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of sister chromatid cohesion, we have isolated multicopy suppressors of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation in the SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 gene which encodes a component of the cohesin complex in budding yeast. Isolation of multicopy suppressors of rhc21-sk16 and further genetic analyses revealed that several distinct biological pathways are involved in the regulation of SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 function. Firstly, PDE2 and BCY1, each of which inhibits the activity of protein kinase A (PKA), suppressed the temperature sensitivity of the rhc21-sk16 mutant . Secondly, PDE2 suppressed the temperature sensitivity of the cdc16-1 mutant. These results suggest that SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 is negatively regulated by the PKA pathway via the anaphase promoting complex (APC). Thirdly, ZDS1, a multicopy suppressor of cdc28-1N, and its homologue ZDS2 were isolated as multicopy suppressors of rhc21-sk16. Furthermore, the rhc21-sk16 mutant did not grow in the presence of the cdc28-1N mutation. Hence, SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 is positively regulated by the mitotic CDK, CDC28. Finally, SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 was found to interact genetically with CDC20, an activator of APC. Overexpression of CDC20 suppressed the temperature sensitivity of rhc21-sk16, and rhc21-sk16 was shown to be synthetically lethal with cdc20-1. In addition, the growth of the rhc21-sk16 mutant was inhibited by overproduction of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p, whose degradation is mediated by Cdc20p in APC-dependent proteolysis. The functional relationships between SCC1/MCD1/RHC21 and PKA, CDK or APC are discussed.
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