Disturbance in biosynthesis of arachidonic acid impairs the sexual development of the onion blight pathogen Stemphylium eturmiunum
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The formation of sexual fruiting bodies for plant pathogenic fungi is a key strategy to propagate their progenies upon environmental stresses. Stemphylium eturmiunum is an opportunistic plant pathogen fungus causing blight in onion. This self-fertilizing filamentous ascomycete persists in the soil by forming pseudothecia, the sexual fruiting body which helps the fungus survive in harsh environments. However, the regulatory mechanism of pseudothecial formation remains unknown. To uncover the mechanism for pseudothecial formation so as to find a practical measure to control the propagation of this onion pathogen, we tentatively used DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AC) to treat S. eturmiunum. 5-AC treatment silenced the gene-encoding monoacylglycerol lipase (magl) concomitant with the presence of the inheritable fluffy phenotype and defectiveness in pseudothecial development. Moreover, the silence of magl also resulted in a reduction of arachidonic acid (AA) formation from 27 ± 3.1 µg/g to 9.5 ± 1.5 µg/g. To correlate the biosynthesis of AA and pseudothecial formation, we created magl knockdown and overexpression strains. Knockdown of magl reduced AA to 11 ± 2.4 µg/g, which subsequently disabled pseudothecial formation. In parallel, overexpression of magl increased AA to 37 ± 3.4 µg/g, which also impaired pseudothecial formation. Furthermore, exogenous addition of AA to the culture of magl-silenced or magl knockdown strains rescued the pseudothecial formation but failed in the gpr1 knockdown strain of S. eturmiunum, which implicates the involvement of AA in signal transduction via a putative G protein-coupled receptor 1. Thus, AA at a cellular level of 27 ± 3.1 µg/g is essential for sexual development of S. eturmiunum. Disturbance in the biosynthesis of AA by up- and down-regulating the expression of magl disables the pseudothecial development. The specific requirement for AA in pseudothecial development by S. eturmiunum provides a hint to curb this onion pathogen: to impede pseudothecial formation by application of AA.
KeywordsStemphylium eturmiunum Sexual development Arachidonic acid Monoacylglycerol lipase G-protein couple receptor
We thank Jingze Zhang for transcriptome analysis. We also thank Daohong Jiang for providing the plasmid. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number: 31230001) for Xiuguo Zhang. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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