Physiological roles of bacillithiol in intracellular metal processing
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Glutathione (GSH) is an abundantly produced low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol in many organisms. However, a number of Gram-positive bacteria do not produce GSH, but instead produce bacillithiol (BSH) as one of the major LMW thiols. Similar to GSH, studies have found that BSH has various roles in the cell, including protection against hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite and disulfide stress. BSH also participates in the detoxification of thiol-reactive antibiotics and the electrophilic metabolite methylglyoxal. Recently, a number of studies have highlighted additional roles for BSH in the processing of intracellular metals. Herein, we examine the potential functions of BSH in the biogenesis of Fe–S clusters, cytosolic metal buffering and the prevention of metal intoxication.
KeywordsLow-molecular-weight thiols Bacillithiol Iron-sulfur cluster Iron Zinc Manganese Copper
The authors would like to thank Rutgers University and the United States Department of Agriculture (MRF project NE–1028) for funding.