Current Genetics

, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 343–365 | Cite as

Thioredoxins in chloroplasts

  • Stéphane D. LemaireEmail author
  • Laure Michelet
  • Mirko Zaffagnini
  • Vincent Massot
  • Emmanuelle Issakidis-Bourguet
Review Article


Thioredoxins (TRXs) are small disulfide oxidoreductases of ca. 12 kDa found in all free living organisms. In plants, two chloroplastic TRXs, named TRX f and TRX m, were originally identified as light dependent regulators of several carbon metabolism enzymes including Calvin cycle enzymes. The availability of genome sequences revealed an unsuspected multiplicity of TRXs in photosynthetic eukaryotes, including new chloroplastic TRX types. Moreover, proteomic approaches and focused studies allowed identification of 90 potential chloroplastic TRX targets. Lately, recent studies suggest the existence of a complex interplay between TRXs and other redox regulators such as glutaredoxins (GRXs) or glutathione. The latter is involved in a post-translational modification, named glutathionylation that could be controlled by GRXs. Glutathionylation appears to specifically affect the activity of TRX f and other chloroplastic enzymes and could thereby constitute a previously undescribed regulatory mechanism of photosynthetic metabolism under oxidative stress. After summarizing the initial studies on TRX f and TRX m, this review will focus on the most recent developments with special emphasis on the contributions of genomics and proteomics to the field of TRXs. Finally, new emerging interactions with other redox signaling pathways and perspectives for future studies will also be discussed.


Arabidopsis Chlamydomonas Calvin cycle Glutaredoxin Glutathione Glutathionylation Photosynthesis Redox signaling Thioredoxin 







Ferredoxin Thioredoxin Reductase


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase




Reduced glutathione


Oxidized glutathione


Hydrogen peroxide


Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase


NADP dependent Malate Dehydrogenase


NADPH Thioredoxin Reductase






Reactive Oxygen Species









The authors would like to thank Myroslawa Miginiac-Maslow for critical reading of the manuscript and helpful suggestions. This work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche Grant JC-45751.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stéphane D. Lemaire
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Laure Michelet
    • 1
  • Mirko Zaffagnini
    • 1
  • Vincent Massot
    • 1
  • Emmanuelle Issakidis-Bourguet
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8618Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Univ Paris-SudOrsay CedexFrance
  2. 2.Institut de Biotechnologie des PlantesUniversité Paris-SudOrsay CedexFrance

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