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Current Genetics

, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 377–392 | Cite as

Phylogeny and evolution of mating-type genes from Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley “net blotch” disease

  • D. Rau
  • G. Attene
  • A. H. D. Brown
  • L. Nanni
  • F. J. Maier
  • V. Balmas
  • E. Saba
  • W. Schäfer
  • R. PapaEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to test the patterns of sequence divergence and haplotype structure at the MAT locus of Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley ‘net blotch’ disease. P. teres is a heterothallic ascomycete that co-occurs in two symptomatological forms, the net form (NF) and the spot form (SF). The mating-type genes MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 were sequenced from 22 NF isolates (12 MAT1-1-1 and 10 MAT1-2-1 sequences) and 17 SF isolates (10 MAT1-1-1 and seven MAT1-2-1 sequences) collected from Sardinian barley landrace populations and worldwide. On the basis of a parsimony network analysis, the two forms of P. teres are phylogenetically separated. More than 85% of the total nucleotide variation was found between formae speciales. The two forms do not share any polymorphisms. Six diagnostic nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the MAT1-1-1 intron (1) and in the MAT1-1-1 (3) and MAT1-2-1 (2) exons. Three diagnostic non-synonymous mutations were found, one in MAT1-1-1 and two in MAT1-2-1. For comparison with P. teres sequence data, the mating-type genes from Pyrenophora graminea were also isolated and sequenced. Divergence between P. graminea and P. teres is of a similar magnitude to that between NF and SF of P. teres. The MAT genes of P. graminea were closer to those of SF than to NF, with the MAT1-2-1 SF peptide not different from the MAT1-2-1 peptide of P. graminea. Overall, these data suggest long genetic isolation between the two forms of P. teres and that hybridization is rare or absent under field conditions, with each form having some particular niche specialization. This indicates that research on resistance to P. teres should consider the two forms separately, as different species.

Keywords

Pyrenophora teres Pyrenophora graminea Mating types Recombination Haplotypes network Hordeum vulgare 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to dedicate this work to Dr. Giovanni Delogu. We thank Dr. C.L. Brubaker and A. Becerra Lopez-Lavallé for comments on a earlier version of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Rau
    • 1
  • G. Attene
    • 2
  • A. H. D. Brown
    • 3
  • L. Nanni
    • 1
  • F. J. Maier
    • 4
  • V. Balmas
    • 5
  • E. Saba
    • 2
  • W. Schäfer
    • 4
  • R. Papa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Facoltà di AgrariaUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche e Genetica Vegetale Agraria, Center for Biotechnology Development and Biodiversity ResearchUniversità degli Studi di SassariSassariItaly
  3. 3.Centre for Plant Biodiversity ResearchCSIRO Plant IndustryCanberraAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Applied Molecular Biology of Plants III (AMPIII), Institute of General BotanyUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante, Center for Biotechnology Development and Biodiversity ResearchUniversità degli Studi di SassariSassariItaly

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