The mitochondrial DNA of land plants: peculiarities in phylogenetic perspective
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- Knoop, V. Curr Genet (2004) 46: 123. doi:10.1007/s00294-004-0522-8
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Land plants exhibit a significant evolutionary plasticity in their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which contrasts with the more conservative evolution of their chloroplast genomes. Frequent genomic rearrangements, the incorporation of foreign DNA from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, an ongoing transfer of genes to the nucleus in recent evolutionary times and the disruption of gene continuity in introns or exons are the hallmarks of plant mtDNA, at least in flowering plants. Peculiarities of gene expression, most notably RNA editing and trans-splicing, are significantly more pronounced in land plant mitochondria than in chloroplasts. At the same time, mtDNA is generally the most slowly evolving of the three plant cell genomes on the sequence level, with unique exceptions in only some plant lineages. The slow sequence evolution and a variable occurrence of introns in plant mtDNA provide an attractive reservoir of phylogenetic information to trace the phylogeny of older land plant clades, which is as yet not fully resolved. This review attempts to summarize the unique aspects of land plant mitochondrial evolution from a phylogenetic perspective.