p-Phenylenediamine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a hydrophilic modifier in thin-film nanocomposite membrane

  • Mohammad ShokouhianEmail author
  • Sina Solouki
Original Paper


In this paper, an efficient thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane was synthesized by interfacial polymerization and used for water desalination. Piperazine (PIP) and trimesoyl chloride were used as monomers, and p-phenylenediamine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotube (p-PDA-MWCNT) was used as a hydrophilic modifier to enhance the performance of the polysulfone nanofiltration membrane. In order to characterize the synthesized p-PDA-MWCNTs, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electron-dispersive spectroscopy were used. In order to enhance the performance of the membrane, different concentrations of p-PDA-MWCNTs (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.075 wt%) were added to the PIP solution to prepare p-PDA-MWCNTs-embedded membranes. To check the performance of the modified membrane, solutions of 1000 mg L−1 Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaCl and CaCl2 were tested. The results show that TFN-modified membrane provides excellent water permeability and also salt rejection in the presence of 0.02 wt% p-PDA-MWCNTs which shows superior improvement in TFN membrane.


Thin-film nanocomposite membrane Interfacial polymerization Para-phenylenediamine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotube Desalination 



The authors wish to thank the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for the financial support of the Ph.D. project of Mr. Sina Solouki with the Grant No. of 16589.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

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