Mechanical, structural, thermal and morphological properties of epoxy composites filled with chicken eggshell and inorganic CaCO3 particles

  • N. A. N. Azman
  • M. R. IslamEmail author
  • M. Parimalam
  • N. M. Rashidi
  • M. Mupit
Original Paper


In this study, chicken eggshell particles (ESPs) were used as a biofiller to fabricate epoxy-based biocomposites. The purpose of using these waste-based particles was to find their suitability to be used as low-cost biofillers for epoxy-based composites. The samples were fabricated by a solution-casting method. A special steel-cast metal mold was used to fabricate the composites. The ESPs were loaded into the epoxy with amounts of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. An amine-based curing agent was used for the curing process. The samples were characterized for the mechanical (tensile, flexural and impact), thermal (TGA and DSC), structural (FTIR and XRD) and morphological (SEM) properties. Result analyses showed that 15 wt.% of ESPs was the optimum loading for the better properties of the composites. Therefore, the properties of the ESPs-based epoxy composite were compared with the inorganic CaCO3 -based composite at a similar amount of filler loading (15 wt.%). Results showed that the addition of fillers decreased the tensile strength of the composites than neat epoxy, whereas tensile modulus was increased. The flexural strength of the composite was increased at the loading of 15 wt.% of ESPs, but it was decreased for the composite prepared with CaCO3 at the same amount. Overall, the ESPs showed better properties than CaCO3, and they can be used as an ecological, environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative of some inorganic fillers.


Epoxy Eggshell particles (ESPs) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biocomposites Biofillers 



  1. 1.
    Lewandowski K, Piszczek K, Zajchowski S, Mirowski J (2016) Rheological properties of wood polymer composites at high shear rates. Polym Test 51:58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nekhlaoui S, Essabir H, Kunal D, Sonakshi M, Bensalah MO, Bouhfid R, Qaiss A (2015) Comparative study for the talc and two kinds of Moroccan clay as reinforcements in polypropylene-SEBS-g-MA matrix. Polym Compos 36:675–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramli R, Yunus RM, Beg MDH, Islam MR (2011) Effects of coupling agent on oil palm clinker and flour-filled polypropylene composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 30(5):431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mirjalili F, Chuah L, Salahi E (2014) Mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/nano α-Al2O3 composites. Sci World J 2014:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Senthil J, Madan Raj P (2015) Preparation and characterization of reinforced egg shell polymer composites. Int J Mech Eng Robot 3(3):7–17Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    François C, Pourchet S, Boni G, Rautiainen S, Samec J, Fournier L, Umr I (2017) Design and synthesis of biobased epoxy thermosets from biorenewable resources. C R Chim 20:1006–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar R, Dhaliwal JS, Kapur GS (2014) Mechanical properties of modified biofiller–polypropylene composites. Polym Compos 35(4):708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hassan SB, Aigbodion VS, Patrick SN (2012) Development of polyester/eggshell particulate composites. Tribol Ind 34(4):217–225Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nayak SY, Srinivas Shenoy H, Sharma P, Aman I, Dey S (2015) Use of egg shell particulate as fillers in e-glass/epoxy composites. In: Proceedings of international conference on mechanical engineering and industrial automation, pp 21–25Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Islam MR, Gupta A, Rivai M, Beg MDH (2014) Characterization of ultrasound-treated oil palm empty fruit bunch-glass fibre-recycled polypropylene hybrid composites. J Polym Eng 35(2):1233–1239Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Islam MR, Rivai M, Gupta A, Beg MDH (2015) Characterization of microwave-treated oil palm empty fruit bunch/glass fibre/polypropylene composites. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 30(7):986–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Islam MR, Gupta A, Rivai M, Beg MDH, Mina MF (2016) Effects of fibre surface treatment on the properties of hybrid composites prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres, glass fibres and recycled polypropylene. J Appl Polym Sci 133:43049–43054Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee YR, Kim SC, Lee HI, Jeong HM, Raghu AV, Reddy KR, Kim BK (2011) Graphite oxides as effective fire retardants of epoxy resin. Macromol Res 19:66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bashir ASM, Manusamy Y (2015) Characterization of raw egg shell powder (ESP) as a good bio-filler. J Eng Res Technol 2(1):56–60Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Choi Lee, Lee Chung, Choi W (2007) Ultra-fine grinding of inorganic powders by stirred ball mill: effect of process parameters on the particle size distribution of ground products and grinding energy efficiency. Met Mater Int 13(4):353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kumar R, Bhowmik S (2008) Development of Natural bio-filler-based epoxy composite for wind turbine blade application: wood epoxy composite as wind turbine blade material. Design Optim Mech Eng Prod. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prabhakar MN, Shah AUR, Rao KC, Song J-I (2015) Mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites reinforced with waste peanut shell powder as a bio-filler. Fibers Polym 16(5):1119–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mohan TP, Kanny K (2018) Thermal, mechanical and physical properties of nanoegg shell particle-filled epoxy nanocomposites. J Compos Mater 52:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fernandes LJ, Vinay BU, Kiran Prakasha A, Ajagol P (2014) Shellfish shell as a bio-filler: preparation, characterization and its effect on the mechanical properties on glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. Int J Eng Sci 3:23–26Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Toro P, Quijada R, Yazdani-Pedram M, Arias JL (2007) Eggshell, a new bio-filler for polypropylene composites. Mater Lett 61(22):4347–4350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zieleniewska M, Leszczyński MK, Szczepkowski L, Bryśkiewicz A, Małgorzata K, Bień K, Ryszkowska J (2015) Development and applicational evaluation of the rigid polyurethane foam composites with egg shell waste. Polym Degrad Stab 132:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mittal A, Teotia M, Soni RK, Mittal J (2016) Applications of egg shell and egg shell membrane as adsorbents: a review. J Mol Liq 223:376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Salmah H, Koay S, Hakimah O (2012) Surface modification of coconut shell powder filled polylactic acid biocomposites. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 26(6):809–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sudheer M, Prabhu R, Raju K, Bhat T (2014) Effect of filler content on the performance of epoxy/PTW composites. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2014:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghabeer T, Dweiri R, Al-Khateeb S (2013) Thermal and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/eggshell biocomposites. J Reinf Plast Compos 32(6):402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chan CM, Wu J, Li JX, Cheung YK (2002) Polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites. Polymer 43:2981–2992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Toro P, Quijada R, Arias JL, Yazdani-Pedram M (2007) Mechanical and morphological studies of poly(propylene)-filled eggshell composites. Macromol Mater Eng 292:1027–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiang L, Zhang J, Wolcott MP (2007) Comparison of polylactide/nano-sized calcium carbonate and polylactide/montmorillonite composites: reinforcing effects and toughening mechanisms. J Polym 48:7632–7644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kang DJ, Pal K, Park SJ, Bang DS, Kim JK (2010) Effect of eggshell and silk fibroin on styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene as bio-filler. Mater Des 31:2216–2219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leong YW, Abu Bakar MB, Mohd Ishak ZA, Ariffin A, Pukanszky B (2004) Comparison of the mechanical properties and interfacial interaction between talc, kaolin, and calcium carbonate filled polypropylene composites. J Appl Polym Sci 91:3315–3326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fan-Long J, Soo-Jin P (2008) Interfacial toughness properties of trifunctional epoxy resins/calcium carbonate nanocomposites. Mater Sci Eng 475:190–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suhas DP, Jeong HM, Aminabhavi TM, Raghu AV (2014) Preparation and characterization of novel polyurethanes containing 4,40-{oxy-1,4-diphenyl bis(nitromethylidine)}diphenol schiff base diol. Polym Eng Sci 54:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reddy KR, Raghu AV, Jeong HM (2008) Synthesis and characterization of novel polyurethanes based on 4,4′-{1,4-phenylenebis[methylylidenenitrilo]} diphenol. Polym Bull 60:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Raghu AV, Gadaginamath GS, Jeong HM, Mathew NT, Halligudi SB, Aminabhavi TM (2009) Synthesis and characterization of novel schiff base polyurethanes. J Appl Polym Sci 113:2747–2754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raghu AV, Gadaginamath GS, Priya M, Seema P, Jeong HM (2008) TM Aminabhavi1 (2008) Synthesis and characterization of novel polyurethanes based on N1, N4-Bis[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]succinohydrazide hard segment. J Appl Polym Sci 110:2315–2320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raghu AV, Jeong HM (2008) Synthesis, characterization of novel dihydrazide containing polyurethanes based on N1, N2-Bis[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]ethanedihydrazide and various diisocyanates. J Appl Polym Sci 107:3401–3407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mustata F, Tudorachi N, Rosu D (2012) Thermal behavior of some organic/inorganic composites based on epoxy/resin and calcium carbonate obtained from conch shell of rapana thomasiana. Compos Part B 43:702–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gupta N, Brar BS, Woldesenbet E (2001) Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of glass fibre reinforcement epoxy. Bull Mater Sci 24(2):219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cölfen H, Qi L (2001) A systematic examination of the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in the presence of a double-hydrophilic block copolymer. Chem Eur J 7(1):106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Krithiga G, Sastry TP (2011) Preparation and characterization of a novel bone graft composite containing bone ash and egg shell powder. Bull Mater Sci 34(1):177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kalaee M, Akhlaghi S, Nouri A, Mazinani S, Mortezaei M, Afshari M, Mostafanezhad D, Allahbakhsh A, Dehaghi HA, Amirsadri A, Gohari DP (2011) Effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate on cure kinetics and properties of polyester/epoxy blend powder coatings. Prog Org Coat 71:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tarig AH, Vijay KR, Rohit KR, Shaik J (2013) Sonochemical effect on the size reduction of CaCO3 nanoparticles derived from waste eggshells. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1308–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Chemical Engineering Technology, Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering TechnologyUniversity of Kuala LumpurAlor GajahMalaysia
  2. 2.Malaysia France InstituteBandar Baru BangiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations