Advertisement

Elaboration and thermal annealing of the optical properties of the thin films of meta-PPV copolymer

  • S. M. AhmadEmail author
Original Paper
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

The meta-PPV copolymer was prepared by the condensation of the diphosphonium chloride of meta-xylene with dialdehyde of vanillin. Meta-PPV thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates by spin casting method. The polycrystalline structure of the films was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and also XRD was utilized to compute the grain size and dislocation. Surface morphology was characterized by using photomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to verify the presence of the absorbance bands. The optical absorption measurement revealed direct-allowed electronic transition with band gaps 3.3 eV and 2.85 eV for as-deposited and annealed films, respectively. The redshift of the band gap and related optical constant after annealing was assigned to the change in configuration and conformation of copolymer chains. Thermal annealing leads to the reduction in PL efficiencies and redshift of single peak which attributed to band-to-band transition.

Keywords

Meta-PPV Thin film Optical properties Thermal annealing XRD 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Dr. Widdad Hanoosh for his invaluable help in providing interaction materials and chemical analyses. And also the author wants to clarify that there is no conflict of interest with regard to potential sources of funding and conflict of interest (financial or non-financial), and there are no relationships or interests that can have a direct or potential impact or shift bias to work.

References

  1. 1.
    Cambers DK, Karanam S, Qi D, Selmic S (2005) The electronic structure of oriented poly[2-methoxy-S-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene]. Appl Phys A 80:483–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deng XY (2011) Light emitting devices with conjugated polymers. J Mol Sci 12:1573–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burroughes JH, Bradley DD, Brown AR (1990) Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers. Nature 347:539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anikeeva PO (2009) Physical properties and design of light—emitting devices based on organic materials and nanoparticles. Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee WH, Kong H, Oh SY (2009) Field effect transistors based on PPV derivatives as a semiconducting layer. Polym Chem 47:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mayer AC, Scully SR, Hardin BE, Rowell MW, McGehee MD (2007) Polymer-based solar cells. Mat Today 10:28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jin Y, Kim J, Park SH (2005) Novel poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s derivatives with CF3-phenyl substituent for light-emitting diodes. Bull Korean Soc 26:855–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sreeram A, Patel NG, Venkatanarayanan RI (2014) Nanomechanical properties of poly(para-phenylene vinylene determined using quasi-static and dynamic Nano indentation. Polym Testing 37:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roncali (1997) Solitons in a box-the organic chemistry of electrically conducting polymers. J Chem Rev 97:173–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horst JWV (2001) The electronic and Optical properties of conjugated polymers predictions from first—principle solid state methods. Thesis. University Eindhoven, ISBN: 90-386-1769Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abdullah BA (2009) Synthesis and properties of some new PPV derivatives and their applications in PLEDs. Thesis. University of Basrah, pp 1–113Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cosslello RF, Akcelrud L, Atvars TD (2005) Solvent and molecular weight effects on fluorescence emission of MEH-PPV. J Braz Chem Soc 16:1678–4790Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bjorklund TG, Lin SH, Bardeen CJ (2004) The optical spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/polyvinyl alcohol blends: from aggregates to isolated chromophores. Synth Metals 142:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shakoor A, Niaz NA, Majid A (2014) Opto-electronic properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) intercalated in CdPS3. Chalcogenide Lett 11:351–358Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen JT, Hsu CS (2013) Poly(2,3-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (DP-PPV) derivatives: synthesis, properties, and their applications in polymer light-emitting diodes. Polymer 54:4045–4058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farinola GM, Cardone A, Babudri F (2010) Fluorinated poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s: synthesis and optical properties of an intriguing class of luminescent polymers. Materials 3:3077–3091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim K, Jung MY, Zhong GL (2004) Morphology of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) thin films prepared directly on the surface of silicon wafers by the chemical vapor deposition polymerization. Synth Met 144:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Massuyeau F, Arab H, Mihut L (2007) Optical properties of poly(para-phenylene vinylene) and single-walled carbon nanotube composite films: effects of conversion temperature, precursor dilution, and nanotube concentrations. J Phys Chem C 111:15111–15118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akcelrud L (2003) Electroluminescent polymers. Prog Polym Sci 28:875–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M-xylene International Chemical Safely Cards IPCS, NlOSH July (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu J, Guo TF, Yang Y (2002) Effects of thermal annealing on the performance of polymer light emitting diodes. J Appl Phys 91:1595–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thambidurai M, Murugan N, Muthukumarasamg N (2009) Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films. Chalcogenide Lett 6:171–179Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ali HM, Mohamed HA, Wakked MM (2007) Properties of transparent conducting oxides formed from CdO alloyed with In2O3. Thin Solid Film 515:3024–3029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakthivel S, Boopathi A (2016) Structural and morphological characterizations of poly(P-Phenylene Vinylene) thin film by spin coating application of polymer LED. J Pure Appl Ind Phys 6:29–33Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mao WL, Mao H, Prokapenka VB (2006) The effect of pressure and volume of ferromagnesian post-perovskite. Geophys Res Lett 33:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bjorklund TG, Lin SH, Bardeen CB (2002) Dependence of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) morphology and time-resolved photophysics on precursor solvent. Synth Met 126:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schlick H, Stelzer F, Tasch S (2000) Highly luminescent poly(m-phenylene vinylene)-co- (p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives synthesized via metathesis condensation (ADMET). J. Macromol Catal 160:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Juhari N, Majid WHA, Zainol AI (2013) The SEM & AFM images of MEH-PPV films below CLA Region. Procedia 53:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nguyen T-Q, Yee RJ, Schwartz BJ (2001) Solution processing of conjugated polymers: the effects of polymer solubility on the morphology and electronic properties of semiconducting polymer films. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 144:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Alias ZN, Zabid ZM, Ali AUM (2013) Optical characterization and properties of polymeric materials for optoelectronic and photonic applications. Int J Appl Sci Technol 3:11–38Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nguyen TP, Yang SH, Rendu PL (2005) Optical properties of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-phenylene vinylene) deposited on porous alumina substrates. Compos Part A 36:515–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kagan J (1993) Organic photochemistry principle and application. Academic Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leger JM (2005) Electrochemical doping and the optical properties of light emitting polymer materials and devices. Thesis. University of California 2740Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jayasree Y, Pathi UC, Bhaskar PU (2012) Effect of precursor concentration and bath temperature on the growth of chemical bath deposited tin sulphide thin films. Appl Surf Sci 258:2732–2740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Omer BM (2012) Optical properties of MEH-PPV and MEH-PPV/ [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester thin films. J Nano Electron Phys 4:04006-1–04006-4Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Misra A, Kumar P, Srivastava R (2005) Electrochemical and optical studies of conjugated polymers for three primary colours. Indian J Pure Appl Phys 43:921–925Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Alwan TJ, Mushtak A (2010) Structure and optical properties of CuAlS_2 thin films prepared via chemical bath deposition. Turk J Phys 34:107–116Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Skettrupt T (1978) Urbach’s rule derived from thermal fluctuations in the band-gap energy. Phys Rev B 18:2622–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hafiz MM, Elkabany N, Koth HM (2015) Determination of optical band gap and optical constants of GexSb40−xSe60 thin films. Int J Thin Films Sci Technol 3:179–185Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    El-Nahass MM, Afify HA, Gadallah AS (2014) Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of titanyl phthalocyanine thin films. Mater Sci Semicond Process 27:254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oboudi SF, Abdul Nabi MT, Al-Taay WA (2015) Dispersion characterization of conductive polymer. Int J Electrochem Sci 10:1555–1562Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farinola GM, Cardone A, Babudri F (2010) Fluorinated poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s: synthesis and optical properties of an intriguing class of luminescent polymers. Materials 3:3077–3091CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics Department, College of ScienceUniversity of BasrahBasrahIraq

Personalised recommendations