Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 2655–2682 | Cite as

Recent developments in bamboo fiber-based composites: a review

  • Adamu MuhammadEmail author
  • Md.Rezaur Rahman
  • Sinin Hamdan
  • Khairuddin Sanaullah


The dominant emerging materials from more than 30 years ago are plastics, ceramics, and composite materials. Composite materials have steady growth in the volume and number of its applications as it enviably penetrates existing markets while creating new ones. Contemporary composite materials are well established in today’s market of specialty and everyday products with its proven worth as weight-saving materials. There is a current challenge of cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness, thus leading to the search for low-cost polymeric-reinforced composites using entirely biodegradable fibers. Bamboo fibers have provided some response in the production of materials that are recyclable, biodegradable, and sustainable. The natural fibers yield composites with high strength-to-weight ratios as a function of the best properties of each component. Researchers have found sustainable high-end quality industrial products that can be generated from raw materials like bamboo fibers. Due to its high strength-weight ratio, bamboo fibers are often used to replace natural glass fiber. Thus, the much attention has been given to its composites with different matrix materials. This article gives a review of recent developments of bamboo fiber-based reinforced composites, its processing methodology, and applications.


Natural fibers Bamboo fibers Fiber extraction Testing Reinforcement Bamboo fiber composites 



Special thanks to the Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) for supporting this research with Grant Number F02/SPGS/1443/2016/25.


  1. 1.
    van Dam JEG, Elbersen HW, Daza Montaño CM (2018) Bamboo production for industrial utilization. In: Perennial grasses for bioenergy and bioproducts. Elsevier, pp 175–216Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thakur VK, Thakur MK, Gupta RK (2014) Review: raw natural fiber-based polymer composites. Int J Polym Anal Charact 19(3):256–271Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chattopadhyay DP, Inamdar MS (2015) Studies on the synthesis and application of N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMCHT) on cotton fabric. J Nat Fibers 12(4):341–356Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zakikhani P, Zahari R, Sultan MTH, Majid DL (2014) Extraction and preparation of bamboo fibre-reinforced composites. Mater Des 63:820–828Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Constable G, Llewellyn D, Walford SA, Clement JD (2015) Cotton breeding for fiber quality improvement. In: Industrial crops: breeding for bioenergy and bioproducts, pp 191–232Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nasir M et al (2017) Natural fiber improvement by laccase; optimization, characterization and application in medium density fiberboard. J Nat Fibers 14(3):379–389Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saw SK, Akhtar K, Yadav N, Singh AK (2014) Hybrid composites made from jute/coir fibers: water absorption, thickness swelling, density, morphology, and mechanical properties. J Nat Fibers 11(1):39–53Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta MK, Srivastava RK (2016) Mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hybrid sisal/jute fiber reinforced polymer composite. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 23:231–238Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta MK, Srivastava RK (2016) Mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hybrid sisal/jute fiber reinforced polymer composite. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 23(4):231–238Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ranilla LG, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K (2010) Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresour Technol 101(12):4676–4689Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yang X, Kim H, Yang L, Cheng C, Zhao Y (2014) Composite varistors based on epoxy resin/La0.8Sr0.2MnO3. J Compos Mater 48(6):677–681Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matadi Boumbimba R et al (2014) Preparation and mechanical characterisation of laminate composites made of glass fibre/epoxy resin filled with tri bloc copolymers. Compos Struct 116(1):414–422Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Campilho RDS (2016) Introduction to natural fiber composites. Nat Fiber Compos 5:356Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang G, Chen F (2016) Development of bamboo fiber-based composites. In: Advanced high strength natural fibre composites in construction, pp 235–255Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roslan SAH, Rasid ZA, Hassan MZ (2015) The natural fiber composites based on bamboo fibers: a review. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 10(15):6279–6288Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peng Z et al (2013) The draft genome of the fast-growing non-timber forest species moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla). Nat Genet 45(4):456–461Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rajan KP, Veena NR, Maria HJ, Rajan R, Skrifvars M, Joseph K (2011) Extraction of bamboo microfibrils and development of biocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate and bamboo microfibrils. J Compos Mater 45(12):1325–1329Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abdul Khalil HPS et al (2014) The use of bamboo fibres as reinforcements in composites. In: Biofiber reinforcements in composite materials, pp 488–524Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bystriakova N, Kapos V, Stapleton C, Lysenko I (2003) Bamboo biodiversity. Unep-Wcmc/Inbar 1:1–72Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sharma B, Gatóo A, Bock M, Ramage M (2015) Engineered bamboo for structural applications. Constr Build Mater 81:66–73Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Akinlabi ET, Anane-Fenin K, Akwada DR (2017) Bamboo taxonomy and distribution across the globe. In: Bamboo, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Okubo K, Fujii T, Thostenson ET (2009) Multi-scale hybrid biocomposite: processing and mechanical characterization of bamboo fiber reinforced PLA with microfibrillated cellulose. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 40(4):469–475Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palombini FL, Kindlein W, de Oliveira BF, de Araujo Mariath JE (2016) Bionics and design: 3D microstructural characterization and numerical analysis of bamboo based on X-ray microtomography. Mater Charact 120:357–368Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Latif SS, Nahar S, Hasan M (2015) Fabrication and electrical characterization of bamboo fiber-reinforced polypropylene composite. J Reinf Plast Compos 34(3):187–195Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mounika M, Ramaniah K, Ratna Prasad AV, Rao KM, Hema Chandra Reddy K (2012) Thermal conductivity characterization of bamboo fiber reinforced polyester composite. J Mater Environ Sci 3(6):1109–1116Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Takagi H, Fujii T (2013) Mechanical characterization of bamboo fiber-reinforced green composites. Key Eng Mater 577–578:81–84Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh TJ, Samanta S (2014) Characterization of natural fiber reinforced composites-bamboo and sisal: a review. IJRET Int J Res Eng Technol 03(07):187–195Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thakur VK, Kessler MR (eds) (2015) Green biorenewable biocomposites: from knowledge to industrial applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, p 323Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu D, Song J, Anderson DP, Chang PR, Hua Y (2012) Bamboo fiber and its reinforced composites: structure and properties. Cellulose 19(5):1449–1480Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eberts W, Siniawski MT, Burdiak T, Polito N (2015) Mechanical characterization of bamboo and glass fiber biocomposite laminates. J Renew Mater 3(4):259–267Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sanal I (2016) Bamboo fiber-reinforced compositesGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clark LG, Londono X, Ruiz-Sanchez E (2015) Bamboo taxonomy and habitat. In: Bamboo: the plant and its uses, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gohil PP, Patel K, Chaudhary V, Ramjiyani R (2016) Effect of bamboo hybridization and staking sequence on mechanical behavior of bamboo-glass hybrid compositeGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li Q, WenJi Y, YangLun Y (2012) Research on properties of reconstituted bamboo lumber made by thermo-treated bamboo bundle curtains. For Prod J 62(7/8):545–550Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rao KMM, Rao KM (2007) Extraction and tensile properties of natural fibers: vakka, date and bamboo. Compos Struct 77(3):288–295Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Akinlabi ET, Anane-Fenin K, Akwada DR (2017) Properties of bamboo. In: Bamboo, pp 87–147Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hojo T, Zhilan XU, Yang Y, Hamada H (2014) Tensile properties of bamboo, jute and kenaf mat-reinforced composite. Energy Procedia 56(C):72–79Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    W. J., R. D, Canavan S (2015) Understanding the risks of an emerging global market for cultivating bamboo: considerations for a more responsible dissemination of alien bamboos. In: 10th World bamboo congressGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu X et al (2016) Nomenclature for engineered bamboo. BioResources 11(1):1141–1161Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Okubo K, Fujii T (2013) Improvement of interfacial adhesion in bamboo polymer composite enhanced with microfibrillated cellulose. In: Polymer composites, biocomposites, vol 3, pp 317–329Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    International Network for Bamboo & Rattan (2014) Bamboo: a strategic resource for countries to reduce the effects of climate change. Policy Synth Rep, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Suhaily SS, Khalil HPSA, Nadirah WOW, Jawaid M (2013) Bamboo based biocomposites material, design and applications. Mater Sci, p 549Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bystriakova N, Kapos V, Lysenko I, Stapleton CMA (2003) Distribution and conservation status of forest bamboo biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific Region. Biodivers Conserv 12(9):1833–1841Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pulavarty B, Sarangi A (2015) Salt tolerance screening of bamboo genotypes (bamboo sps.) using growth and organic osmolytes accumulation as effective indicators. In: World Bamboo Congr., vol 10, no 1, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gupta A, Kumar A (2008) Potential of bamboo in sustainable development. Asia Pacific Bus Rev IV(4):100–107Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Correal JF (2016) Bamboo design and construction. In: Nonconventional and vernacular construction materials, pp 393–431Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kim H, Okubo K, Fujii T, Takemura K (2013) Influence of fiber extraction and surface modification on mechanical properties of green composites with bamboo fiber. J Adhes Sci Technol 27(12):1348–1358Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kavitha S, Felix Kala T (2016) Study on structure and extraction of bamboo fiber. Asian J Sci Technol 7(2):2426–2428Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yueping W et al (2010) Structures of bamboo fiber for textiles. Text Res J 80(4):334–343Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bar-Yosef O, Eren MI, Yuan J, Cohen DJ, Li Y (2012) Were bamboo tools made in prehistoric Southeast Asia? An experimental view from South China. Quat Int 269:9–21Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Amada S, Ichikawa Y, Munekata T, Nagase Y, Shimizu H (1997) Fiber texture and mechanical graded structure of bamboo. Compos Part B Eng 28(1–2):13–20Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Walter L (2002) The anatomy of bamboo culms. Int Netw Bamboo Ratt, p 128Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liese W (1992) The structure of bamboo. In: International symposium on industrial use of bamboo, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yu WK, Chung KF, Chan SL (2005) Axial buckling of bamboo columns in bamboo scaffolds. Eng Struct 27(1):61–73Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Xiao Y (2016) Engineered bamboo. In: Nonconventional and vernacular construction materials, pp 433–452Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bai YY, Xiao LP, Shi ZJ, Sun RC (2013) Structural variation of bamboo lignin before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment. Int J Mol Sci 14(11):21394–21413Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Resistance C, Properties T, Bamboo OF, Fibers G, Epoxy R, Composites H (2011) Chemical resistace and tensile properties of bamboo and glass fibers reinforced epoxy hybrid composties. Int J Mater Biomater Appl 1(1):17–20Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Abdul Khalil HPS, Bhat IUH, Jawaid M, Zaidon A, Hermawan D, Hadi YS (2012) Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: a review. Mater Des 42:353–368Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Li D-L et al (2015) Effect of lignin on bamboo biomass self-bonding during hot-pressing: lignin structure and characterization. BioResources 10(4):6769–6782Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Xie J, Hse CY, Shupe TF, Pan H, Hu T (2016) Extraction and characterization of holocellulose fibers by microwave-assisted selective liquefaction of bamboo. J Appl Polym Sci 133(18)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhang Z, Xue Q, Huang K, Ma Q, Guo Y (2013) Study on dissociation of nano bamboo extractives. Extraction 4(97):7Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hunter IR (2003) Bamboo resources, uses and trade: the future? J Bamboo Rattan 2(4):319–326Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Biswas S, Ahsan Q, Cenna A, Hasan M, Hassan A (2013) Physical and mechanical properties of jute, bamboo and coir natural fiber. Fibers Polym 14(10):1762–1767Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nayak L, Mishra SP (2016) Prospect of bamboo as a renewable textile fiber, historical overview, labeling, controversies and regulation. Fashion Textiles 3(1)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Osorio L, Trujillo E, Van Vuure AW, Verpoest I (2011) Morphological aspects and mechanical properties of single bamboo fibers and flexural characterization of bamboo/epoxy composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 30(5):396–408Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sugesty S, Kardiansyah T, Hardiani H (2015) Bamboo as raw materials for dissolving pulp with environmental friendly technology for rayon fiber. Procedia Chem 17:194–199Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pinho E, Henriques M, Oliveira R, Dias A, Soares G (2010) Development of biofunctional textiles by the application of resveratrol to cotton, bamboo, and silk. Fibers Polym 11(2):271–276Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stelte W (2013) Steam explosion for biomass pre-treatmentGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yao J, Bastiaansen C, Peijs T (2014) High strength and high modulus electrospun nanofibers. Fibers 2(2):158–186Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zou L, Jin H, Lu W-Y, Li X (2009) Nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of the cell wall of bamboo fibers. Mater Sci Eng C 29(4):1375–1379Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jayaramudu J, Reddy GSM, Varaprasad K, Sadiku ER, Ray SS, Rajulu AV (2014) Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: effects of chemical treatment. Fibers Polym 15(7):1462–1468Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kang JT, Kim SH (2011) Improvement in the mechanical properties of polylactide and bamboo fiber biocomposites by fiber surface modification. Macromol Res 19(8):789–796Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zhou A, Huang D, Li H, Su Y (2012) Hybrid approach to determine the mechanical parameters of fibers and matrixes of bamboo. Constr Build Mater 35:191–196Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kuromi Y et al (2012) Removal of bamboo fragments transorbitally penetrated into the cerebellum and temporal lobe 30 years after the injury. Neurol Surg 40(11):979–983Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yu H, Yu C (2007) Study on microbe retting of kenaf fiber. Enzyme Microb Technol 40(7):1806–1809Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lin JS, Wang X, Lu G (2014) Crushing characteristics of fiber reinforced conical tubes with foam-filler. Compos Struct 116(1):18–28Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yu Y, Huang X, Yu W (2014) A novel process to improve yield and mechanical performance of bamboo fiber reinforced composite via mechanical treatments. Compos Part B Eng 56:48–53Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    da Correia VC, dos Santos V, Sain M, Santos SF, Leão AL, Savastano Junior H (2016) Grinding process for the production of nanofibrillated cellulose based on unbleached and bleached bamboo organosolv pulp. Cellulose 23(5):2971–2987Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hamdi H, Zahouani H, Bergheau JM (2004) Residual stresses computation in a grinding process. J Mater Process Technol 147(3):277–285Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Erdumlu N, Ozipek B (2008) Investigation of regenerated bamboo fibre and yarn characteristics. Fibres Text East Eur 16(4):43–47Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eriksson M, Goossens H, Peijs T (2015) Influence of drying procedure on glass transition temperature of PMMA based nanocomposites. Nanocomposites 1(1):36–45Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zakikhani P, Zahari R, Sultan MTH, Majid DL (2014) Bamboo fibre extraction and its reinforced polymer composite material. Int J Chem Biomol Metall Mater Sci Eng 8(4):271–274Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Li MF, Sun SN, Xu F, Sun RC (2012) Microwave-assisted organic acid extraction of lignin from bamboo: structure and antioxidant activity investigation. Food Chem 134(3):1392–1398Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fu J, Yang X, Yu C (2008) Preliminary research on bamboo degumming with xylanase. Biocatal Biotransform 26(5):450–454Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Manalo AC, Wani E, Zukarnain NA, Karunasena W, Lau KT (2015) Effects of alkali treatment and elevated temperature on the mechanical properties of bamboo fibre-polyester composites. Compos Part B Eng 80:73–83Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Xie J, Lin YS, Shi XJ, Zhu XY, Su WK, Wang P (2013) Mechanochemical-assisted extraction of flavonoids from bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) leaves. Ind Crops Prod 43(1):276–282Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kaur V, Chattopadhyay DP, Kaur S (2013) Study on extraction of bamboo fibres from raw bamboo fibres bundles using different retting techniques. Textiles Ind Sci Technol (TLIST) [Online].
  88. 88.
    Jonoobi M et al (2015) Different preparation methods and properties of nanostructured cellulose from various natural resources and residues: a review. Cellulose 22(2):935–969Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Liu DG, Song JW, Anderson DP, Chang PR, Hua Y (2012) Bamboo fiber and its reinforced composites: structure and properties. Cellulose 19(5):1449–1480Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Amada S, Untao S (2001) Fracture properties of bamboo. Compos Part B Eng 32(5):451–459Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Castanet E et al (2016) Structure–property relationships of elementary bamboo fibers. Cellulose 23(6):3521–3534Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Okubo K, Fujii T, Yamamoto Y (2004) Development of bamboo-based polymer composites and their mechanical properties. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 35(3):377–383Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Phong NT, Fujii T, Chuong B, Okubo K (2011) Study on how to effectively extract bamboo fibers from raw bamboo and wastewater treatment. J Mater Sci Res 1(1)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rohit K, Dixit S (2016) A review—future aspect of natural fiber reinforced composite. Polym Renew Resour 7(2):43–60Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Al-mansob RA et al (2017) Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J Polym Environ 87(1):42Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hajiha H, Sain M, Mei LH (2014) Modification and characterization of hemp and sisal fibers. J Nat Fibers 11(2):144–168Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chand N, Fahim M (2008) Tribology of natural fiber polymer compositesGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tonoli GHD, Mendes RF, Siqueira G, Bras J, Belgacem MN, Savastano H (2013) Isocyanate-treated cellulose pulp and its effect on the alkali resistance and performance of fiber cement composites. Holzforschung 67(8):853–861Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kaushik VK, Kumar A, Kalia S (2013) Effect of mercerization and benzoyl peroxide treatment on morphology, thermal stability and crystallinity of sisal fibers. Int J Text Sci 1(6):101–105Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    George M, Mussone PG, Alemaskin K, Chae M, Wolodko J, Bressler DC (2016) Enzymatically treated natural fibres as reinforcing agents for biocomposite material: mechanical, thermal, and moisture absorption characterization. J Mater Sci 51(5):2677–2686Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    George M, Mussone PG, Bressler DC (2014) Surface and thermal characterization of natural fibres treated with enzymes. Ind Crops Prod 53:365–373Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Faruk O, Bledzki AK, Fink HP, Sain M (2012) Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010. Prog Polym Sci 37(11):1552–1596Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cromer BM, Coughlin EB, Lesser AJ (2015) Evaluation of a new processing method for improved nanocomposite dispersions. Nanocomposites 1(3):152–159Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ghazy A, Bassuoni M, Maguire E, O’Loan M (2016) Properties of fiber-reinforced mortars incorporating nano-silica. Fibers 4(1):6Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Khan Z, Yousif BF, Islam M (2017) Fracture behaviour of bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Compos Part B Eng 116:186–199Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wang YN, Weng YX, Wang L (2014) Characterization of interfacial compatibility of polylactic acid and bamboo flour (PLA/BF) in biocomposites. Polym Test 36:119–125Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sharma B (2016) Development of engineered bamboo for structural design. In: Symposium: bamboo in the urban environment 2016Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shibata S, Cao Y, Fukumoto I (2008) Flexural modulus of the unidirectional and random composites made from biodegradable resin and bamboo and kenaf fibres. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 39(4):640–646Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    May-Pat A, Valadez-González A, Herrera-Franco PJ (2013) Effect of fiber surface treatments on the essential work of fracture of HDPE-continuous henequen fiber-reinforced composites. Polym Test 32(6):1114–1122Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    De Almeida AC et al (2017) Wood-bamboo particleboard: mechanical properties. BioResources 12(4):7784–7792Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Trujillo D, López LF (2016) Bamboo material characterisation. In: Nonconventional and vernacular construction materials, pp 365–392Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sharma B, Bauer H, Schickhofer G, Ramage M (2017) Mechanical characterisation of structural laminated bamboo. Proc Inst Civ Eng Struct Build 170(SB4):250–264Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jain S, Kumar R, Jindal UC (1992) Mechanical behaviour of bamboo and bamboo composite. J Mater Sci 27(17):4598–4604Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wang F, Shao J, Keer LM, Li L, Zhang J (2015) The effect of elementary fibre variability on bamboo fibre strength. Mater Des 75:136–142Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gulrajani ML, Arora A (2006) Isolation and characterization of bamboo fibres. J Bamboo Ratt 5(3–4):177–186Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Daniel IM, Ishai O (1994) Engineering mechanics of composite materials. Mech Compos Mater 881–886Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vigneshwar M, Divagar S, Harisudhan PS, Mariselvam V, Selvamani ST (2015) Flexural test on glass, sisal, kenaf fiber composite material produced by hand layup method. Int J Appl Eng Res 10(84): Special Issue, pp. 140–142Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Palanikumar K, Ramesh M, Hemachandra Reddy K (2016) Experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of green hybrid sisal and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. J Nat Fibers 13(3):321–331Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Fiore V, Di Bella G, Valenza A (2015) The effect of alkaline treatment on mechanical properties of kenaf fibers and their epoxy composites. Compos Part B Eng 68:14–21Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Liang K, Shi S, Wang G (2014) Effect of impregnated inorganic nanoparticles on the properties of the kenaf bast fibers. Fibers 2(3):242–254Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bajpai PK, Singh I, Madaan J (2012) Development and characterization of PLA-based green composites: a review. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 27(1):52–81Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bajpai PK, Singh I, Madaan J (2014) Development and characterization of PLA-based green composites: a review. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 27(1):52–81Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pracella M, Haque MM, Puglia D, Alvarez V (2012) Preparation and characterization of PLA nanocomposites with nanocellulose filled PVAC. In: 15th European conference on composite materialsGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Montaño CMD, Pels JR, Fryda LE (2012) Evaluation of torrefied bamboo for sustainable bioenergy production evaluation of torrefied bamboo for sustainable bioenergy. In: 9th World Bamboo Congress, April, pp 10–15Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Peng P, She D (2014) Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: a review. Carbohyd Polym 112:701–720Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Abilash N, Sivapragash M (2016) Optimizing the delamination failure in bamboo fiber reinforced polyester composite. J King Saud Univ Eng Sci 28(1):92–102Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Correal JF, Echeverry JS (2015) Evaluation of selected mechanical properties of new laminated guadua mats for structural use. In: 10th World bamboo congressGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Banga H, Singh VK, Choudhary SK (2015) Fabrication and study of mechanical properties of bamboo fibre reinforced bio-composites. Innov Syst Des Eng 6(1):84–99Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    R M, Bansal S, Raichurkar P (2016) Experimental study of bamboo using banana and linen fibre reinforced polymeric composites. Perspect Sci 8:313–316Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Cassano R, Trombino S (2012) Modification of cotton fiber for biomedical applications. In: Cotton: cultivation, varieties and uses, pp 165–182Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Xi LX, Qin DC (2012) The antibacterial performance of natural bamboo fiber and its influencing factors. In: Proceedings of the 55th international convention of society of wood science and technology August 27–31, 2012 Beijing, China, 2012, pp 1–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia SarawakKota SamarahanMalaysia
  2. 2.Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC Corporate HeadquartersAbujaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia SarawakKota SamarahanMalaysia

Personalised recommendations