Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 1099–1114 | Cite as

Synthesis, characterization of amino-modified walnut shell and adsorption for Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution

  • Guangtian LiuEmail author
  • Wen Zhang
  • Rensheng Luo
Original Paper


In this paper, a biodegradable, green, easy renewable heavy metal capture agent, amino-modified walnut shell (AMWNS), was synthesized, and the adsorption behavior for Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was also investigated. The AMWNS was prepared, where triethylene tetramine (TETA) was used as modified monomer, and the structure of AMWNS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Then, adsorption capacity of AMWNS for Pb(II) was investigated in different pH (2–9) and different adsorbent dosage (0.5–2.0 g/L), and the result showed when solution pH value was 7, the adsorption capacity of the AMWNS on Pb(II) ions was optimal. The maximum Pb(II) ions adsorption capacity (Qm) obtained by Langmuir fitting model was 56.81 mg/g at 298 K. The adsorption kinetics was well confirmed by pseudo-second-order equation. The results of thermodynamic studies showed the adsorption of AMWNS for Pb(II) ions was an endothermic reaction and spontaneous process. Furthermore, the result showed AMWNS had excellent regeneration capability.


Amino-modified walnut shell (AMWNS) Pb(II) ions Adsorption Kinetics Thermodynamic Regeneration capability 



This work was financially supported by the Breeding Research Subjects of Yanshan University (Grant No. 16LGY020). We are thankful to Dr. Rudolph Winter, professor at Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St Louis who made modification in English.


  1. 1.
    Liu Y, Chen M, Hao Y (2013) Study on the adsorption of Cu(II) by EDTA functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nano-particles. Chem Eng J 218:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim SA, Kamala SK, Lee K, Park Y, Shea PJ, Lee W, Kim H, Oh B (2013) Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by a zeolite–nanoscale zero-valent iron composite. Chem Eng J 217:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Googerdchian F, Moheb A, Emadi R (2012) Lead sorption properties of nanohydroxyapatite–alginate composite adsorbents. Chem Eng J 200–202:471–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Saleh TA (2011) Chromium removal by combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide with adsorption properties of carbon nanotubes. Water Res. 45:2207–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rao GP, Lu C, Su F (2007) Sorption of divalent metal ions from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes: a review. Sep Purif Technol 58:224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Badruddoza AZM, Tay ASH, Tan PY, Hidajat K, Uddin MS (2011) Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as nano-adsorbents for removal of copper ions: synthesis and adsorption studies. J Hazard Mater 185:1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saha S, Sarkar P (2012) Arsenic remediation from drinking water by synthesized nano-alumina dispersed in chitosan-grafted polyacrylamide. J Hazard Mater 227:68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lo SF, Wang SY, Tsai MJ, Lin LD (2012) Adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of heavy metal ions by Moso and Ma bamboo activated carbons. Chem Eng Res Des 90:1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cao JS, Lin JX, Fang F, Zhang MT, Hu ZR (2014) A new absorbent by modifying walnut shell for the removal of anionic dye: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Bioresour Technol 163:199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Unnithan MR, Viond VP, Anirudhan TS (2004) Synthesis, characterization, and application as a chromium(VI) adsorbent of amine-modified polyacrylamide-grafted coconut coir pith. Ind Eng Chem Res 43(9):2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hsu LC, Wang SL, Lin YC, Wang MK, Chiang PN, Liu JC, Kuan WH, Chen CC, Tzou YM (2010) Cr(VI) removal on fungal biomass of Neurospora crassa: the importance of dissolved organic carbons derived from the biomass to Cr(VI) reduction. Environ Sci Technol 44:6202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bulgariu D, Bulgariu L (2012) Equilibrium and kinetics studies of heavy metal ions biosorption on green algae waste biomass. Bioresour Technol 103:489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kiefer E, Sigg L, Schosseler P (1997) Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of algae surfaces. Environ Sci Technol 31:759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abdel ASE, Gad YH, Dessouki AM (2006) Use of rice straw and radiation-modified maize starch/acrylonitrile in the treatment of wastewater. J Hazard Mater 129:204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Naghizadeh A, Nasseri S, Nazmara S (2011) Removal of trichloroethylene from water by adsorption on to multiwall carbon nanotubes. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 8:317Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohammod M, Sen TK, Maitra S, Dutta BK (2011) Removal of Zn2+ from aqueous solution using castor seed hull. Water Air Soil Pollut 215:609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen SH, Yue QY, Gao BY, Xu X (2010) Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using modified wheat residue. J Colloid Interface Sci 349:256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meena AK, Kadirvelu K, Mishra GK, Rajagopal C, Nagar PN (2008) Adsorptive removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by treated sawdust (Acacia arabica). J Hazard Mater 150:604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ahmad A, Rafatullah M, Sulaiman O, Ibrahim MH, Chii YY, Siddique BM (2009) Removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption on sawdust of Meranti wood. Desalination 247:636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Solmaz S, Ayoub KJ, Mohammad MD (2014) Synthesis and characterization of novel single-walled carbon nanotubes-doped walnut shell composite and its adsorption performance for lead in aqueous solutions. J Environ Chem Eng 2:2059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mohammad NM (2013) Magnetic ferrite nanoparticle–alginate composite: synthesis, characterization and binary system dye removal. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 44:322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mobasherpour I, Salahi E, Pazouki M (2011) Removal of divalent cadmium cations by means of synthetic nano crystallite hydroxyapatite. Desalination 226:142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ding DH, Zhao YX, Yang SJ, Shi WS, Zhang ZY, Lei ZF, Yang YN (2013) Adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using agricultural residue–Walnut shell: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling studies. Water Res 47:2563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parab H, Sudersanan M (2010) Engineering a lignocellulosic biosorbent—coir pith for removal of cesium from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Water Res 44:854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yuvaraja G, Krishnaiah N, Subbaiah MV, Krishnaiah A (2014) Biosorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by Solanum melongena leaf powder as a low-cost biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 114:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Feng YF, Dionysiou DD, Wu YH, Zhou H, Yang LZ, Xue LH, He SY (2013) Adsorption of dyestuff from aqueous solutions through oxalic acid-modified swede rape straw: adsorption process and disposal methodology of depleted bioadsorbents. Bioresour Technol 138:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu GT, Gao YD (2016) Synthesis and characterization of aminothiourea modified Walnut shell and its adsorption for Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. Polym Korea 40(2):194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xia CL, Jing Y, Jia YZ, Yue DY, Ma J, Yin XJ (2011) Adsorption properties of Congo red from aqueous solution on modified hectorite: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Desalination 265:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bhaumik M, McCrindle R, Maity A (2013) Efficient removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto interconnected polypyrrole–polyaniline nanofibres. Chem Eng J 228:506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen SH, Yue QY, Gao BY, Xu X (2010) Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using modified wheat residue. J Colloid Interface Sci 349:256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lin JW, Zhan YH, Zhu ZL, Xing YQ (2011) Adsorption of tannic acid from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified zeolite. J Hazard Mater 193:102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gong R, Zhu SX, Zhang D, Chen J, Ni SJ, Guan R (2008) Adsorption behavior of cationic dyes on citric acid esterifying wheat straw: kinetic and thermodynamic profile. Desalination 230:220CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemistry EngineeringYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of Missouri-Saint LouisSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations