Synthesis, characterization and application of a new nano-structured samarium(III) ion-imprinted polymer

  • Fariba Masoumi
  • Parvin SarabadaniEmail author
  • Afshin Rajabi Khorrami
Original Paper


This work presents the synthesis of a new nano-structured samarium ion-imprinted polymer (Sm(III)-IIP) by precipitation polymerization. The Sm(III)-IIP nanoparticles were prepared by the copolymerization of Sm(III)–acrylic acid–4-vinylpyridine ternary complex with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and methyl methacrylate, and then, Sm(III) was leached to obtain Sm(III)-IIP leached particles. Moreover, non-imprinted polymer particles were similarly prepared without Sm(III) ions. The characterization of polymers was carried out by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis–differential scanning calorimetry (TGA–DSC) and surface analysis. The effect of several parameters such as solution’s pH, sorption and desorption time, type, concentration and volume of eluent on the extraction of the polymers was investigated and optimized by one variable at the time. Optimized parameters were as follows: pH 4; mass sorbent 0.1 g; sorption time, 120 min; desorption time, 120 min; aqueous phase volume, 10 mL. Moreover, it is found that 30 mL of HCl (3 M) provided the most effective elution of Sm3+ ion from IIP beads. The maximum sorbent capacity of the IIPs is 14.91 mg g−1. The sorbent was used for purification of samarium-152 stable isotope. The samarium-152 stable isotope recovery yield was % 99.67. The detection limit of the method was evaluated to be 0.27 ng mL−1. The precision of the method (%RSD, n = 6) was % 0.47.


Samarium Stable isotope Imprinted polymer Adsorption capacity Solid phase Chemical purification 



The authors wish to thank the Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTR), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

289_2018_2672_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4272 kb)


  1. 1.
    Maini CL, Bergomi S, Romano L, Sciuto R (2004) 153Sm-EDTMP for bone pain palliation in skeletal metastases. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 31:S171–S178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Islami-Rad SZ, Shamsaei M, Gholipour-Peyvandi R, Ghannadi-Maragheh M (2011) Reactor production and purification of 153Sm radioisotope via natSm target irradiation. Radiochemistry 53:642–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gongpan L, Shijun S, Zhizhou L, Jinting D, Yedan Z, Suizhi X, Yongfu, T (1997) CI-140 electromagnetic isotope separator of production type. China nuclear science & technology report, CNIC-01184Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strelow FW, Victor AH (1990) Separation of yttrium and neodymium from samarium and the heavier lanthanides by cation-exchange chromatography with hydroxyl ethylenediamine triacetate in monochloro acetate buffer. Talanta 37:1155–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torkaman R, Moosavian MA, Torab-Mostaedi M, Safdari J (2013) Solvent extraction of samarium from aqueous nitrate solution by Cyanex301 and D2EHPA. Hydrometallurgy 137:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weaver B (1954) Separation factor. Anal Chem 26:474–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castrillejo Y, Fernández P, Medina J, Hernández P, Barrado E (2011) Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes. Electrochim Acta 56:8638–8644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gok C (2014) Neodymium and samarium recovery by magnetic nano-hydroxyapatite. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 301:641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Poole CF (2003) New trends in solid-phase extraction. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 22:362–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rao TP, Daniel S, Gladis JM (2004) Tailored materials for preconcentration or separation of metals by ion-imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction (IIP-SPE). TrAC Trends Anal Chem 23:28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nishide H, Tsuchida E (1976) Selective adsorption of metal ions on poly(4-vinylpyridine) resins in which the ligand chain is immobilized by crosslinking. Makromol Chem 177:2295–2310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shamsipura M, Besharati-Seidani A (2011) Synthesis of a novel nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer for very fast and highly selective recognition of copper (II) ions in aqueous media. React Funct Polym 71:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shakerian F, Dadfarnia S, Shabani AMH (2012) Synthesis and application of nano-pore size ion imprinted polymer for solid phase extraction and determination of zinc in different matrices. Food Chem 134:488–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sarabadani P, Payehghadr M, Sadeghi M, Abbasi K, Bolourinovin F (2013) Ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles as a novel sorbent to separate radioyttrium from Sr target. Radiochim Acta 101:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ren Z, Kong D, Wang K, Zhang W (2014) Preparation and adsorption characteristics of an imprinted polymer for selective removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. J Mater Chem A 2:17952–17961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sarabadani P, Sadeghi M, Payehghadr M, Es’haghi Z (2014) Synthesis and characterization of a novel nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer for pre-concentration of Y(III) ions. Anal Met 6:741–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sarabadani P, Payehghadr M, Sadeghi M, Es’haghi Z et al (2014) Solid phase extraction of radioyttrium from irradiated strontium target using nanostructure ion imprinted polymer formed with 1-hydroxy-4-(prop-2-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone. Appl Radiat Isotopes 90:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghorbani-Kalhor E, Behbahani M, Abolhasan J (2015) Application of Ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for selective trace determination of palladium ions in food and environmental samples with the aid of experimental design. Food Anal Methods 8:1746–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shakerian F, Kim KH, Kwon E, Szulejko JE, Kumar P et al (2016) Advanced polymeric materials: synthesis and analytical application of ion imprinted polymers as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction of metal ions. Trends Anal Chem 83:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fayazi M, Ghanei-Motlagh M, Taher MA, Ghanei-Motlagh R, Salavati MR (2016) Synthesis and application of a novel nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer for the preconcentration and determination of thallium(I) ions in water samples. J Hazard Mater 309:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kulkarni AD, Yusoff MM, Mostapa NRN, Sarkar MS et al (2017) Synthesis of ion imprinted polymers for selective recognition and separation of rare earth metals. J Rare Earths 35:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mafu LD, Mamba BB, Msagati TAM (2016) Synthesis and characterization of ion imprinted polymeric adsorbents for the selective recognition and removal of arsenic and selenium in wastewater samples. J Saudi Chem Soc 20:594–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Özkahraman B (2018) Synthesis of ion-imprinted bioadsorbents based on chitosan and its usage in Al(III) removal. J Polym Environ 26:1113–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nezhadali A, Pirouzmand M, Payehghadr M (2018) Determination of optimal adsorption-desorption conditions for selective removal of Ni(II)from petrochemical samples using ion imprinted nanosorbent. Eur J Chem 9:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuras MJ, Wacław KP, Kołodziejski L (2017) Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel zinc(II) ion-imprinted polymer. Polym Bull 74:5029–5048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Monier M, Abdel-Latif DA, Youssef I (2018) Preparation of ruthenium (III) ion-imprinted beads based on 2-pyridylthiourea modified chitosan. J Colloid Interf Sci 513:266–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shirvani-Arani S, Ahmadi SJ, Bahrami-Samani A, Ghannadi-Maragheh M (2008) Synthesis of nano-pore samarium (III)-imprinted polymer for preconcentrative separation of samarium ions from other lanthanide ions via solid phase extraction. Anal Chim Acta 623:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Say R, Birlik E, Ersöz A, Yılmaz F, Gedikbey T, Denizli A (2003) Preconcentration of copper on ion-selective imprinted polymer microbeads. Anal Chim Acta 480:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bayari S, Yurdakul S (2000) Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of 4-vinylpyridine and its transition metal(II) tetracyanonickelate complexes. Spectrosc Lett 33:475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feairheller WR Jr, Katon JE (1967) The vibrational spectra of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate. Spectrochim Acta 23A:2225–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Alizadeh T, Amjadi S (2013) Synthesis of nano-sized Eu3+-imprinted polymer and its application for indirect voltammetric determination of europium. Talanta 106:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lawson KE (1961) The infrared absorption spectra of metal acetylacetonates. Spectrochim Acta 17:248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsoi YK, Ho YM, Leung KS-Y (2012) Selective recognition of arsenic by tailoring ion-imprinted polymer for ICP-MS quantification. Talanta 89:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesIslamic Azad University, Karaj BranchKarajIran
  2. 2.Physics and Accelerators Research SchoolNuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTR)KarajIran

Personalised recommendations