Advertisement

Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 75, Issue 9, pp 3917–3934 | Cite as

Influence of natural ageing on mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing silver nanoparticles and titanium dioxide

  • Daiane Tomacheski
  • Michele Pittol
  • Douglas N. Simões
  • Vanda F. Ribeiro
  • Ruth M. C. Santana
Original Paper
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

The current spread of pathogenic bacteria has brought about an increase in the research for products with antimicrobial properties. Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) compounds are widely used for personal care objects and sporting goods manufacture and may be produced with the incorporation of antimicrobial additives. TPE compounds (based on styrene–ethylene/butylene–styrene, polypropylene and mineral oil) containing silver nanoparticles (AgNp, 0.05%) and titanium dioxide (TiO2, 4.0%) was exposed to natural ageing; a compound with no antimicrobial additive (Standard) was also tested. Antibacterial activity, mechanical and thermal characteristics of TPE samples was determined after 3, 6 and 9 months of exposure. After 9 months, both Standard and AgNp-loaded samples had a loss of mechanical properties, while the TiO2 sample was more resistant to the action of natural ageing. The infrared and thermal analysis suggested that not only the chain scission, but also the segregation of components that integrate the polymer matrix were one of the causes for mechanical properties loss. Both metal-loaded samples showed a decay of antibacterial efficiency after 9 months of exposure. The decay in antibacterial action can be assigned to the presence of dirt that provides a substrate to microbial proliferation and also avoid contact between the metal-containing surfaces and microorganisms cells.

Keywords

Thermoplastic elastomers Antimicrobial Natural ageing TGA DSC 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank FINEP for the financial support (03.13.0280.00) and Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LTDA for infrastructure support. Special thanks to additive supplier TNS Nanotecnologia Ltda.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Shah AA, Hasan F, Hameed A, Ahmed S (2009) Role of microorganisms in biodegradation of plastics: basics and methods in biodegradation of synthetic and natural plastics. VDM Verlag Dr., MüllerGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scott G (1997) Abiotic control of polymer biodegradation. Trends Polym Sci 5:361–368Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nichols D (2004) Biocides in plastics. Rapra Review Reports, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cappitelli F, Sorlini C (2008) Microorganisms attack synthetic polymers in items representing our cultural heritage. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(3):564–569.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01768-07 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sudár A, López MJ, Keledi G, Vargas-García MC, Suárez-Estrella F, Moreno J, Burgstaller C, Pukánszky B (2013) Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling. Chemosphere 93:408–414.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.05.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wl Oliani, Parra DF, Lima LFCP, Lincopan N, Lugao AB (2015) Development of a nanocomposite of polypropylene with biocide action from silver nanoparticles. J Appl Polym Sci 132:42218.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.42218 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tomacheski D, Pittol M, Ribeiro VF, Santana RMC (2016) Efficiency of silver-based antibacterial additives and its influence in thermoplastic elastomers. J Appl Polym Sci 133:43956.  https://doi.org/10.1002/APP.43956 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xing Y, Li X, Zhang L, Xu Q, Che Z, Li W, Bai Y, Li K (2012) Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the antibacterial and physical properties of polyethylene-based film. Prog Org Coat 73:219–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang T-C, Noguchi T, Isshiki M, Wu J-H (2014) Effect of titanium dioxide on chemical and molecular changes in PVC sidings during QUV accelerated weathering. Polym Degrad Stab 104:33–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Page K, Wilson M, Parkin IP (2009) Antimicrobial surfaces and their potential in reducing the role of the inanimate environment in the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. J Mater Chem 19:3819–3831.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b818698g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silver S (2003) Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:341–353.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-6445(03)00047-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    INMET (National Institute of Meteorology, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia). http://www.inmet.gov.br/sonabra/pg_dspDadosCodigo.php?QTg4NA==. Accessed 18 May 2016
  13. 13.
    Gulmine JV, Akcelrud L (2006) FTIR characterization of aged XLPE. Polym Test 25:932–942.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2006.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Allen NS, Edge M, Mourelatou D, Wilkinson A, Liauwa CM, Parellada MD, Barrio JA, Quiteria VRS (2003) Influence of ozone on styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS) copolymer. Polym Degrad Stab 79:297–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Allen NS, Edge M, Wilkinson A, Liauw CM, Mourelatou D, Barrio J, Martínez-Zaporta MA (2001) Degradation and stabilisation of styrene–ethylene–butadiene–styrene (SEBS) block copolymer. Polym Degrad Stab 71:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fechine GJM, Santos JAB, Rabello MS (2006) Avaliação da fotodegradação de poliolefinas através de exposição natural e artificial. Quim Nova 29(4):674–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sierra CA, Galán Fatou JG, Parellada MD, Barrio JA (1997) Thermal and mechanical properties of poly-(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) triblock copolymers. Polymer 38(17):4325–4335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ohlsson B, Hassander H, Tornell B (1996) Blends and thermoplastic interpenetrating polymer networks of polypropylene and polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-stat-butylene)-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer 1: morphology and structure-related properties. Polym Eng Sci 36(4):501–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sengers WGF, Wübbenhorst M, Pickena SJ, Gotsis AD (2005) Distribution of oil in olefinic thermoplastic elastomer blends. Polymer 46:6391–6401.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2005.04.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karakaya N, Ersoy OG, Oral MA, Gonul T, Deniz V (2010) Effect of different fillers on physical, mechanical, and optical properties of styrenic-based thermoplastic elastomers. Polym Eng Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.21569 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kubacka A, Diez MS, Rojo D, Bargiela R, Ciordia S, Zapico I, Albar JP, Barbas C, Santos VAPM, Fernández-García M, Ferrer M (2014) Understanding the antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2-based nanocomposite films in a pathogenic bacterium. Sci Rep 4:4134–4143.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep04134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B (2004) Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:177–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kumar R, Howdle S, Münstedt H (2005) Polyamide/silver antimicrobials: effect of filler types on the silver ion release. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater 75B(2):311–319.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang Z, Wang S, Zhang J (2014) Large stabilizing effect of titanium dioxide on photodegradation of PVC/α-methylstyrene-acrylonitrile copolymer/impact modifier-matrix composites. J Polym Compos 35:2365–2375.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.22904 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gupta S, Chandra T, Sikder A, Menon A, Bhowmick AK (2008) Accelerated weathering behavior of poly(phenylene ether)-based TPE. J Mater Sci 43:3338–3350.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-008-2484-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lonnberg V, Starck P (1997) Comparison of the weather resistance of different thermoplastic elastomers. Polym Test 16:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brydson JA (1999) Aliphatic polyolefins other than polyethylene, and diene rubbers. Plastics materials, 7th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Wobum, pp 247–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sahin S, Yayla P (2005) Effects of processing parameters on the mechanical properties of polypropylene random copolymer. Polym Test 24:1012–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Najafi SK, Mostafazadeh-Marznaki M, Chaharmahali M, Tajvidi M (2009) Effect of thermomechanical degradation of polypropylene on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites. J Compos Mater 43(22):2543–2554.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998309345349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mouffok S, Kaci M (2015) Artificial weathering effect on the structure and properties of polypropylene/polyamide-6 blends compatibilized with PP-g-MA. J Appl Polym Sci 132:41722.  https://doi.org/10.1002/APP.41722 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rouillon C, Bussiere P-O, Desnoux E, Collin S, Vial C, Therias S, Gardette J-L (2016) Is carbonyl index a quantitative probe to monitor polypropylene photodegradation? Polym Degrad Stab 128:200–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2015.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lv Y, Huang Y, Yang J, Kong M, Yang H, Zhao J, Li G (2015) Outdoor and accelerated laboratory weathering of polypropylene: a comparison and correlation study. Polym Degrad Stab 112:145–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.12.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Panicker SS, Ninan KN (1997) Influence of molecular weight on the thermal decomposition of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene. Thermochim Acta 290:191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Billmeyer FW Jr (1984) Polymer structure and physical properties. In: Textbook of polymer, 3rd edn. Wiley, USA, pp 330–355Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Allen NS, Edge M, Ortega A, Sandoval G, Liauw CM, Verran J, Stratton J, McIntyre RB (2004) Degradation and stabilisation of polymers and coatings: nano versus pigmentary titania particles. Polym Degrad Stab 85:927–946.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2003.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eggins HOW, Mills J, Holt A, Scott G (1971) Biodeterioration and biodegradation of synthetic polymers. In: Sykes G, Skinner FA (eds) Microbial aspects of pollution. Academic Press, London, pp 267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gilan I, Hadar Y, Sivan A (2004) Colonization, biofilm formation and biodegradation of polyethylene by a strain of Rhodococcus ruber. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:97–104.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-004-1584-8 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Polymeric Materials, Lapol, School of EngineeringFederal University of Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGSPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Softer Brasil Compostos Termoplásticos LtdaCampo BomBrazil

Personalised recommendations