Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 74, Issue 12, pp 5163–5179 | Cite as

Real-time polymerization monitoring in a dual-cured resin cement by magnetic resonance

  • Bruno Luiz Santana Vicentin
  • Antonio Marchi Netto
  • Luiz Henrique Dall’Antonia
  • Eduardo Di Mauro
  • Bernhard Blümich
Original Paper


The polymerization process of the dual-cured resin cement AllCem (FGM, Joinvile, Brazil) was investigated by unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-MOUSE) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The NMR experiment allows measurements of the mobile monomers as function of time and depth, while real-time X-band EPR monitoring gives information about the concentration of free radicals. The monomer concentration instantly decays for photo-cured samples, but it remains constant about ~4 min for self-cured samples before starting to decrease. For the self-cured sample, the concentration of free radicals suddenly decreases to zero and then reappears with a strongly increasing rate. Models for the polymerization kinetics of each initiation protocol are proposed, giving insight into the polymerization process of the dual-cured resin cement.


Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrum Monomer Concentration Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Glycidyl Methacrylate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Symbols






Monomer unit



\({\text{RM}}_{n}^{ *}\)

Active macroradical


Amine radical


Initiator radical

\({\text{RM}}_{{n,{\text{b}}}}^{ *}\)

Trapped macroradical with n monomer units




“Dead” polymer containing n + m monomer units


Initiator decomposition rate constant


Propagation rate constant


Termination rate constant


Radical trapping rate constant


Inhibition rate constant

f1 and f2

Efficiency factors




The intensity of light absorbed in the surface


Extinction coefficient


Initiation efficiency


The length of the light path in the sample


Rate of production of primary radicals


Fraction of exciplex forming free radicals


Rate of propagation


Rate of termination



The authors thank the FGM Produtos Odontológicos Ltda (Joinvile, SC, Brazil) for providing dental materials. The author AMN thanks Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPQ) for financial support (Grant No. 290010/2009-8).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Luiz Santana Vicentin
    • 1
  • Antonio Marchi Netto
    • 2
  • Luiz Henrique Dall’Antonia
    • 3
  • Eduardo Di Mauro
    • 1
  • Bernhard Blümich
    • 2
  1. 1.Departmento de FísicaUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of Technical and Macromolecular ChemistryRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  3. 3.Departmento de QuímicaUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil

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