# Integrodifference equations in the presence of climate change: persistence criterion, travelling waves and inside dynamics

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## Abstract

To understand the effects that the climate change has on the evolution of species as well as the genetic consequences, we analyze an integrodifference equation (IDE) models for a reproducing and dispersing population in a spatio-temporal heterogeneous environment described by a shifting climate envelope. Our analysis on the IDE focuses on the persistence criterion, travelling wave solutions, and the inside dynamics. First, the persistence criterion, characterizing the global dynamics of the IDE, is established in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of persistence, a unique travelling wave is found to govern the global dynamics. The effects of the size and the shifting speed of the climate envelope on the basic reproduction number, and hence, on the persistence criterion, are also investigated. In particular, the critical domain size and the critical shifting speed are found in certain cases. Numerical simulations are performed to complement the theoretical results. In the case of persistence, we separate the travelling wave and general solutions into spatially distinct neutral fractions to study the inside dynamics. It is shown that each neutral genetic fraction rearranges itself spatially so as to asymptotically achieve the profile of the travelling wave. To measure the genetic diversity of the population density we calculate the Shannon diversity index and related indices, and use these to illustrate how diversity changes with underlying parameters.

## Keywords

Integrodifference equation Persistence criterion Travelling wave Inside dynamics Neutral genetic diversity Diversity index## Mathematics Subject Classification

92D25 92D40 45G10 35C07 39A10## References

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