Fractal Dimension in Butterflies’ Wings: a novel approach to understanding wing patterns ?
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- Castrejón-Pita, A., Sarmiento-Galán, A., Castrejón-Pita, J. et al. J. Math. Biol. (2005) 50: 584. doi:10.1007/s00285-004-0302-6
The geometrical complexity in the wings of several, taxonomically different butterflies, is analyzed in terms of their fractal dimension. Preliminary results provide some evidence on important questions about the (dis)similarity of the wing patterns in terms of their fractal dimension. The analysis is restricted to two groups which are widely used in the literature as typical examples of mimicry, and a small number of unrelated species, thus implying the consideration of only a fraction of the wing pattern diversity. The members of the first mimicry ring, composed by the species Danaus plexippus (better known as the monarch butterfly), and the two subspecies Basilarchia archippus obsoleta (or northern viceroy) and Basilarchia archippus hoffmanni (or tropical viceroy), are found to have a very similar value for the fractal dimension of their wing patterns, even though they do not look very similar at first sight. It is also found that the female of another species (Neophasia terlootii), which looks similar to the members of the previous group, does not share the same feature, while the Lycorea ilione albescens does share it. For the members of the second group of mimicry related butterflies, the Greta nero nero and the Hypoleria cassotis, it is shown that they also have very close values for the fractal dimension of their wing patterns. Finally, it is shown that other species, which apparently have very similar wing patterns, do not have the same fractal dimension. A possible, not completely tested hypothesis is then conjectured: the formation of groups by individuals whose wing patterns have an almost equal fractal dimension may be due to the fact that they do share the same developmental raw material, and that this common feature is posteriorly modified by natural selection, possibly through predation.