Advertisement

Growth Pattern of Magnetic Field-Treated Bacteria

  • Samina MasoodEmail author
  • Iram Saleem
  • Derek Smith
  • Wei-Kan Chu
Article

Abstract

A study of the induced effect of different types of weak magnetic field exposure on bacterial growth is performed, comparing the relative changes after removal from the magnetic fields. This investigation is relevant to understand the effect of magnetic field exposure on human beings due to electronic devices. For this purpose, we use four species of common bacteria in reference to human health and safety including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The choice of these four bacteria also allows us to check for effects which rely upon the Gram-staining properties or shapes of bacterial species. These species were initially exposed to static, non-homogeneous, and alternating weak magnetic fields, and then they were grown in incubators in the same environment at 37 °C simultaneously. Comparative measurements of optical density are then used to track the sustained impact on bacterial growth in the experimental samples. Bacteria were first grown in different weak magnetic fields on a plain glass surface both in liquid and solid media. Magnetic field-treated bacteria were then transferred into similar test tubes to grow in an incubator concurrently. Bacterial cultures in liquid nutrient broth on plain glass proliferated faster in most species. Different magnetic fields affect the growth pattern of bacteria differently, depending on the bacterial strain. The weak magnetic field seems to decelerate the growth rate, even after the magnetic field is removed. With application of this study, we can potentially investigate the effect of weak field exposures on Eukaryotic cells and gene dynamics.

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Fijalkowski K, Nawrotek P, Struk M, Kordas M, Rakoczy R (2013) The effects of rotating magnetic field on growth rate, cell metabolic activity and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. J Magn 18(3):289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shoda M, Nakamura K, Tsuchiya K, Okuno K, Ano T (1999) Bacterial growth under strong magnetic field. Electr Magn Biol Med.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4867-6_47 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Justo OR, Pérez VH, Alvarez DC, Alegre RM (2006) Growth of Escherichia coli under extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 134(2):155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cellini L (2008) Bacterial response to the exposure of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 29(4):302–311.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20391 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frankel RB (1979) Magnetite in freshwater magnetotactic bacteria. Science 203:1355–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Re BD, Bersani F, Agostini C, Mesirca P, Giorgi G (2004) Various effects on transposition activity and survival of Escherichia coli cells due to different ELF-MF signals. Radiat Environ Biophys 43(4):265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kohno M, Yamazaki M, Kimura I, Wada M (2000) Effect of static magnetic fields on bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Pathophysiology 7(2):143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brkovic S, Postic S, Ilic D (2015) Influence of the magnetic field on microorganisms in the oral cavity. J Appl Oral Sci 23(2):179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mornet S, Vasseur S, Grasseta F, Duguet E (2004) Magnetic nanoparticle design for medical diagnosis and therapy. J Mater Chem 14:2161–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lai H, Singh NP (1991) Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat. Environ Health Perspect 112(6):687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Adair RK (1991) Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Phys Rev A 43:1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aarholt E, Flinn EA, Smith CW (1981) Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on bacterial growth rate. Phys Med Biol 26(4):613–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Strašák L, Vetterl V, Šmarda J (2002) Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on bacteria Escherichia coli. Bioelectrochemistry 55(1–2):161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Segatore B, Setacci D, Bennato F, Cardigno R, Amicosante G, Iorio R (2012) “Evaluations of the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on growth and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int J Microbiol.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/587293 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gerencser VF, Barnothy MF, Barnothy JM (1964) Inhibition of bacterial growth in fields of high paramagnetic strength. Biol Eff Magn Fields 2:39.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-6578-3_21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hedrick HG (1964) Inhibition of bacterial growth in homogeneous fields. Biol Eff Magn Fields 24:45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0214-9_22 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerencser VF, Barnothy MF, Barnothy JM (1962) Inhibition of bacterial growth by magnetic fields. Nature 196:539–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Masood S (2017) Effect of weak magnetic field on bacterial growth. Biophys Rev Lett 12(04):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ramon C, Ayaz M, Streeter DD (1981) Inhibition of growth rate of Escherichia coli induced by extremely low-frequency weak magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 2(3):285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pollitt EJG, Diggle SP (2017) Defining motility in the Staphylococci. Cell Mol Life Sci 74(16):2943–2958.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-017-2507-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saleem I, Masood S, Smith D, Chu W-K (2018) Adhesion of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria on 1D nano-ripple glass pattern in weak magnetic fields. MicrobiologyOpen. https://doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.640 (accepted for publication in MicrobiologyOpen)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical and Applied SciencesUniversity of Houston-Clear LakeHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Texas Center for SuperconductivityUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations