Degradation Mechanism of 4-Chlorobiphenyl by Consortium of Pseudomonas sp. Strain CB-3 and Comamonas sp. Strain CD-2

  • Ziyu Xing
  • Ting Hu
  • Yun Xiang
  • Peng Qi
  • Xing HuangEmail author


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are types of lasting environmental pollutants which are widely used in various industries. 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CBP) is a PCB which is harmful to the environment as well as humans. Two strains, CB-3 and CD-2, were isolated from the polluted soil of a chemical factory and could completely degrade 50 mg/L 4CBP within 12 h by co-culture. The consortium comprising strains CB-3 and CD-2 was effective in the degradation of 4CBP. 4CBP was degraded initially by strain CB-3 to accumulate 4-chlorobenzoate (4CBA) and further oxidised by strain CD-2. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phenotypic typing, strain CB-3 and strain CD-2 were identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Comamonas sp., respectively. The substrate spectra experiment showed that strain CB-3 could degrade PCBs with no more than three chlorine atoms. A gene cluster of biphenyl metabolism was found in the genome of strain CB-3. Besides, a dechlorination gene cluster and a gene cluster of protocatechuate (PCA) metabolic were found in the genome of strain CD-2. These gene clusters are supposed to be involved in 4CBP degradation. The ability of strains CB-3 and CD-2 to degrade 4CBP in soil was assessed by soil experiment, and 4CBP at the initial concentration of 10 mg/kg was 80.5% removed within 15 days.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Fund of China (41671317) and Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund (CX(18)1005).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2556 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life SciencesNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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