Advertisement

Microbiota Associated with Dromedary Camel Milk from Algerian Sahara

  • Tahar Amrouche
  • Jérôme MounierEmail author
  • Audrey Pawtowski
  • Florian Thomas
  • Adeline Picot
Article

Abstract

Despite the fact that camel milk represents a valuable food source, the fungal diversity of raw camel milk has been poorly studied so far. Here, we investigated the fungal and bacterial communities found in dromedary camel milk from Ghardaia, a representative region of Algerian Sahara. The application of both culture-dependent and independent molecular techniques, based on dHPLC analysis and metabarcoding of ITS region, provided a complementary biodiversity assessment of camel milk fungi which was composed of 15 different taxa. Yeast species belonged to Filobasidium, Naganishia, Malassezia, Mrakia, Rhodotorula, and Yarrowia genera; and mold species belonged to Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Penicillium genera. All three techniques revealed that the fungal community was dominated by species belonging to the former genus Cryptococcus (Filobasidium and Naganishia) although none of them was able to encompass the entire fungal diversity alone. In addition, massive parallel 16S rRNA tag sequencing was applied to gain an insight into the diversity of bacterial communities which were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Our results provide an initial insight about fungal and bacterial population found in dromedary camel milk from Algerian Sahara.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. Tahar Amrouche is grateful to the M. Mammeri University for providing a travel Grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Dhaheri AS, Al-Hemeiri R, Kizhakkayil J, Al-Nabulsi A, Abushelaibi A, Shah NP, Ayyash M (2017) Health-promoting benefits of low-fat akawi cheese made by exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from camel milk. J Dairy Sci 100:7771–7779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davati N, Yazdi FT, Zibaee S, Shahidi F, Edalatian MR (2015) Study of lactic acid bacteria community from raw milk of Iranian one humped camel and evaluation of their probiotic properties. Jundishapur J Microbiol 8:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vimont A, Fernandez B, Hammami R, Ababsa A, Daba H, Fliss I (2017) Bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: a high potential probiotic candidate from raw camel milk. Front Microbiol 800:865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kacem M, Karam NE (2006) Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria): isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Grasas Aceites 57:198–204Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lore TA, Mbugua SK, Wangoh J (2005) Enumeration and identification of microflora in suusac, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product. LWT Food Sci Technol 38:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Quigley L, O'Sullivan O, Stanton C (2013) The complex microbiota of raw milk. FEMS Microbiol Rev 37:664–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vacheyrou M, Normand AC, Guyot P, Cassagne C, Piarroux R, Bouton Y (2011) Cultivable microbial communities in raw cow milk and potential transfers from stables of sixteen French farms. Int J Food Microbiol 143:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delavenne E, Mounier J, Asmani K, Jany J-L, Barbier G, Le Blay G (2011) Fungal diversity in cow, goat and ewe milk. Int J Food Microbiol 151:247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L (2011) Characterization of yeasts associated with camel milk using phenotypic and molecular identification techniques. Res J Microbiol 6:678–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yam BAZ, Khomeiri M, Mahounak AS, Jafari SM (2014) Isolation and identification of yeasts from local traditional fermented camel milk, Chal. J Microbiol Res 4:112–116Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schoch CL, Seifert KA, Huhndorf S, Robert V, Spouge JL, Levesque CA, Chen W (2012) Fungal barcoding consortium. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for fungi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:6241–6246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khedid K, Faid M, Mokhtari A, Soulaymani A, Zinedine A (2009) Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the one humped camel milk produced in Morocco. Microbiol Res 164:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gardes M, Bruns T (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes-application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vilgalys R, Hester M (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. J Bacteriol 172:4238–4246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mounier J, Le Blay G, Vasseur V, Le Floch G, Jany J-L, Barbier G (2010) Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) for yeasts identification in red smear cheese surfaces. Lett Appl Microbiol 51:18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herlemann DP, Labrenz M, Jürgens K, Bertilsson S, Waniek JJ, Andersson AF (2011) Transitions in bacterial communities along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. ISME J 5:1571–1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Danesi P, Firacative C, Cogliati M, Otranto D, Capelli G, Meyer W (2014) Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and M13 PCR fingerprinting revealed heterogeneity amongst Cryptococcus species obtained from Italian veterinary isolates. FEMS Yeast Res 1:897–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Callon C, Delbès C, Duthoit F, Montel MC (2006) Application of SSCP-PCR fingerprinting to profile the yeast community in raw milk Salers cheeses. Syst Appl Microbiol 29:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Panek T, Táborskỳ P, Pachiadaki MG, Hroudová M, Vlček C, Edgcomb VP, Čepička I (2015) Combined culture-based and culture-independent approaches provide insights into diversity of jakobids, an extremely plesiomorphic eukaryotic lineage. Front Microbiol 6:1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carvalho BF, Ávila CLS, Krempser PM, Batista LR, Pereira MN, Schwan RF (2016) Occurrence of mycotoxins and yeasts and moulds identification in corn silages in tropical climate. J Appl Microbiol 120:1181–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garofalo C, Osimani A, Milanović V, Aquilanti L, De Filippis F, Stellato G, Di Mauro S, Turchetti B, Buzzini P, Ercolini D, Clementi F (2015) Bacteria and yeast microbiota in milk kefir grains from different Italian regions. Food Microbiol 49:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bučková M, Puškárová A, Ženišová K, Kraková L, Piknová Ľ, Kuchta T, Pangallo D (2018) Novel insights into microbial community dynamics during the fermentation of Central European ice wine. Int J Food Microbiol 266:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ma L-J, Geiser DM, Proctor RH, Rooney AP, O'Donnell K, Trail F, Gardiner DM, Manners JM, Kazan K (2013) Fusarium pathogenomics. Annu Rev Microbiol 67:399–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu X, Kuda T, Takahashi H, Kimura B (2018) Bacterial and fungal microbiota of spontaneously fermented Chinese products, Rubing milk cake and Yan-cai vegetable pickles. Food Microbiol 72:106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raats D, Offek M, Minz D, Halpern M (2011) Molecular analysis of bacterial communities in raw cow milk and the impact of refrigeration on its structure and dynamics. Food Microbiol 28:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eneroth Å, Ahrné S, Molin G (2000) Contamination routes of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in the production of pasteurised milk, evaluated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Int Dairy J 10:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomic SciencesM. Mammeri UniversityTizi OuzouAlgeria
  2. 2.Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie MicrobienneUniv BrestPlouzanéFrance

Personalised recommendations