Nannochloropsis sp. and Spirulina sp. as a Source of Antifungal Compounds to Mitigate Contamination by Fusarium graminearum Species Complex
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Phenolic (free, conjugated and bound) and carotenoid extracts from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. and Spirulina sp. were investigated regarding their potential to mitigate contamination by Fusarium complex fungal pathogens. Free phenolic acid extracts from both microalgae were the most efficient, promoting the lowest mycelial growth rates of 0.51 cm day− 1 (Spirulina sp.) and 0.78 cm day− 1 (Nannochloropsis sp.). An experiment involving natural free phenolic acid extracts and synthetic solutions was carried out based on the natural phenolic acid profile. The results revealed that the synthetic mixtures of phenolic acids from both microalgae were less efficient than the natural extracts at inhibiting fungal growth, indicating that no purification is required. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 49.6 μg mL− 1 and 33.9 μg mL− 1 were determined for the Nannochloropsis and Spirulina phenolic acid extracts, respectively. The use of phenolic extracts represents a new perspective regarding the application of compounds produced by marine biotechnology to prevent Fusarium species contamination.
The authors thank the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia e Ciência de Alimentos (FURG) and CNPq-Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico for supported this study by the Project 472633/2012.
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Conflict of interest
Authors have no conflict of interest.
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