Microbial Communities in Different Tissues of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Leaf-cutting Ants
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Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A. sexdens rubropilosa queens using Ion Torrent NGS. Our results showed that the microbial community in the midgut differs in abundance and diversity from the communities in the postpharyngeal gland of the queen and in whole workers. The main microbial orders in whole workers were Lactobacillales, Clostridiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinomycetales, Burkholderiales, and Bacillales. In the tissues of the queens, the main orders were Burkholderiales, Clostridiales, Syntrophobacterales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, and Actinomycetales (midgut) and Entomoplasmatales, unclassified γ-proteobacteria, and Actinomycetales (postpharyngeal glands). The high abundance of Entomoplasmatales in the postpharyngeal glands (77%) of the queens was an unprecedented finding. We discuss the role of microbial communities in different tissues and castes. Bacteria are likely to play a role in nutrition and immune defense as well as helping antimicrobial defense in this ant species.
KeywordsAttini Endosymbiont Entomoplasmatales Next-generation sequencing
We are grateful to FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo), Grant No. 2012/12541-3 to ASV, CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), Grants No. 157837/2015-7 to ASV and 306910/2011-0 to OCB, and CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), Grant No. 007343/2014-00) to MOR, for funding. We are grateful to CEIS (Center for the Study of Social Insects) at Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP)–Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, for granting access to the Molecular Biology Laboratory. We also thank Life Technologies (CA, USA) for sequencing using Next-generation sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) equipments.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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