Biodegradation of Picolinic Acid by a Newly Isolated Bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis Strain JQ135
We isolated a bacterial strain JQ135 from municipal wastewater, which was capable of efficiently degrading picolinic acid (PA). Based on the physico-biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis, strain JQ135 was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. In addition, strain JQ135 produced an orange pigment when cultured in the Luria-Bertani medium, which is different from the previously reported strains of A. faecalis. During the degradation of PA by the resting strain JQ135 cells, only one intermediate, 6-hydroxypicolinic acid (6HPA), was detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. A random transposon mutagenesis library of strain JQ135 was constructed. One mutant, Mut-G31, could convert PA into 6HPA without further degradation. The disrupted gene (orf2) was amplified from Mut-G31, and its product showed 32% identity to the 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid kinase (KdkA) from Haemophilus influenzae. Results from complementation analysis confirmed that GTG was the initiation codon of the kdkA-like orf2, and that it was essential for PA biodegradation by strain JQ135. This study provides the first genetic evidence for the bacterial degradation of PA.
KeywordsMineral Salt Medium Isonicotinic Acid Picolinic Acid Alcaligenes Faecalis Orange Pigment
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31500082), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2016M601826), the Postdoctoral Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. 1601035A), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-13-0861).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human and Animal Participants
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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