Degradation of Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate by a Novel Gordonia alkanivorans Strain YC-RL2
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One bacterial strain, YC-RL2, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, could utilize environmental hormone Di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a sole carbon source for growth. Strain YC-RL2 was identified as Gordonia alkanivorans by 16S rRNA gene analysis and Biolog tests. The effects of environmental factors which might affect the degrading process were optimized at 30 °C and pH 8.0. Strain YC-RL2 showed superior halotolerance and could tolerate up to 0–5% NaCl in trace element medium supplemented with DEHP, although the DEHP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. It also showed an outstanding performance in a wide range of pH (6.0–11.0). Meanwhile, strain YC-RL2 was able to withstand high concentrations of DEHP (from 100 to 800 mg/L), and the degradation rates were all above 94%. The DEHP intermediates were detected by HPLC–MS, and the degradation pathway was deduced tentatively. DEHP was transformed into phthalic acid (PA) via mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and PA was further utilized for growth via benzoic acid (BA). The enzyme expected to catalyze the hydrolysis of MEHP to PA was identified from strain YC-RL2. Further investigation found that the enzyme could catalyze the transformation of a wide range of monoalkyl phthalates to PA. This study is the first report about species G. alkanivorans which could degrade several kinds of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and indicates its application potential for bioremediation of PAE-polluted sites.
KeywordsPhthalate DEHP Phthalic Acid Gordonia Butyl Benzyl Phthalate
We thank Lida Han (Biotechnology Research Institute of CAAS, China) for great help and good suggestions for HPLC and MS analyses. We also acknowledge the intellectual and material contributions by Organization of Women in Science in the Developing world (Fund Reservation No. 3240266458) and SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 31170119, No. 31540067 and No. 31300101) and Basic Research Fund of CAAS (No. 0042014006, No. 0042012003 and No. 0042011006).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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We declare that our study did not involve any animals or humans.
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