Fluorescent Pseudomonads in the Phyllosphere of Wheat: Potential Antagonists Against Fungal Phytopathogens
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Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from wheat leaves were characterized regarding their antagonistic potential and taxonomy in relation to protect crop plants from infestation by Fusarium and Alternaria fungi causing diseases in wheat. Using a dual culture assay, inhibition of fungal growth was found for 40 isolates of 175 fluorescent pseudomonads. Twenty-two of the antagonists were able to suppress strains of Fusarium as well as Alternaria. By means of real-time qPCR, the phlD gene encoding the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol was detected in 20 isolates. On the basis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry spectral patterns, the isolates with antagonistic activity were assigned to the phylogenetic subgroup Pseudomonas fluorescens and the closely related Pseudomonas gessardii subgroup. The results of the study suggest that pseudomonads in the phyllosphere of crop plants may possibly contribute to natural plant protection.
KeywordsFusarium Fusarium Head Blight Antagonistic Activity Fluorescent Pseudomonad Alternaria Alternata
The authors thank Anne Winding (Aarhus University) for providing Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 and Birgit Wernitz as well as Beate Selch for excellent technical assistance. This work was supported by the Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz, Ernährung und Landwirtschaft and the Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur des Landes Brandenburg.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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