Current Microbiology

, Volume 70, Issue 6, pp 894–897 | Cite as

Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. Isolated from Bitterns

  • Kwan Soo KoEmail author
  • Ji-Young Choi
  • Joo Kim
  • Myoung Kyu Park


In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7T and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81T (97.1–97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7T and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7T and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7T (=KCTC 42139T = JCM 30009T).


Xylitol Cellular Fatty Acid Amygdalin Sorbose Aesculin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported partially by Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (Seoul, Kore).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. 1.
    Abbott DL (2007) Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia, Plesiomonas, and other Enterobacteriaceae. In: Murray PR (ed) Manual of clinical microbiology. ASM Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al Masalma M, Armougom F, Scheld WM, Dufour H, Roche PH, Drancourt M, Raoult D (2009) The expansion of the microbiological spectrum of brain abscesses with use of multiple 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Clin Infect Dis 48:1169–1178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brenner DJ, Grimont PAD, Steigerwalt AG, Fanning GR, Ageron E, Riddle CF (1993) Classification of Citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmannii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:645–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brenner DJ, O’Hara CM, Grimont PAD, Janda JM, Falsen E, Aldova E, Ageron E, Schindler J, Abbott SL, Steigerwalt AG (1999) Biochemical identification of Citrobacter species defined by DNA hybridization and description of Citrobacteri gillenii sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 11). J Clin Microbiol 37:2619–2624PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chun J, Lee JH, Jung Y, Kim M, Kim S, Kim BK, Lim YW (2007) EzTaxon: a web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2259–2261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marmur J, Doty P (1962) Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. J Mol Biol 5:109–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schauer DB, Zabel BA, Pedraza IF, O’Hara CM, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ (1995) Genetic and biochemical characterization of Citrobacter rodentium sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 33:2064–2068PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stackebrandt E, Ebers J (2006) Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol Today 33:152–155Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Werkman CH, Gillen GF (1932) Bacteria producing trimetylene glycol. J Bacteriol 23:167–182PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwan Soo Ko
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ji-Young Choi
    • 1
  • Joo Kim
    • 2
  • Myoung Kyu Park
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research InstituteSungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSuwonKorea
  2. 2.Taepyung Natural Salt Inc.SeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, Samsung Biomedical Research InstituteSungkyunkwan University School of MedicineSuwonKorea

Personalised recommendations