Current Microbiology

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 495–500 | Cite as

Spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Through Soil and Grass on a Mouflon (Ovis aries) Pasture

  • Marija Kaevska
  • S. Lvoncik
  • J. Lamka
  • I. Pavlik
  • I. Slana
Article

Abstract

The aims of this study were to describe spatial contamination of the environment on a mouflon pasture, as well as to assess the contamination of grass and roots after surface contamination and in depth contamination with feces and buried tissues from animals infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis). Samples of soil, roots, and aerial parts of plants were collected from different locations inside the mouflon pasture, and one control sample site was chosen outside the area where the animals are living. M. a. paratuberculosis DNA was present in all the examined sites and was more often detected in roots than in soil. DNA was detected at up to 80 cm of depth and was spatially more widespread than the initial hypothesis of M. a. paratuberculosis leaching vertically into deeper layers of soil. This study broadens our knowledge of the spread and persistence of M. a. paratuberculosis in an environment with highly infected animals.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by Grant from the Ministry of Agriculture (No. MZe0002716202). The results of the project LO1218 were obtained with a financial support from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS) of the Czech Republic under the NPU I program.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    Aly SS, Anderson RJ, Whitlock RH, Fyock TL, McAdams S, Adaska JM, Jiang J, Gardner IA (2009) Reliability of environmental sampling to quantify Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis on California free-stall dairies. J Dairy Sci 92:3634–3642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bihrmann K, Nielsen SS, Toft N, Ersboll AK (2012) Spatial differences in occurrence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds and in control programme participation. Prev Vet Med 103:112–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bolster CH, Cook KL, Haznedaroglu BZ, Walker SL (2009) The transport of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis through saturated aquifer materials. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dhand NK, Eppleston J, Whittington RJ, Toribio JALM (2009) Association of farm soil characteristics with ovine Johne’s disease in Australia. Prev Vet Med 89:110–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dhand NK, Toribio JALM, Whittington RJ (2009) Adsorption of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to soil particles. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:5581–5585PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eisenberg SWF, Nielen M, Santema W, Houwers DJ, Heederik D, Koets AP (2010) Detection of spatial and temporal spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment of a cattle farm through bio-aerosols. Vet Microbiol 143:284–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaevska M, Slana I, Kralik P, Reischl U, Orosova J, Holcikova A, Pavlik I (2011) “Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis” in neck lymph nodes of children and their environment examined by culture and triplex quantitative real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 49:167–172PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lombard JE (2011) Epidemiology and economics of paratuberculosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 27:525–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moravkova M, Babak V, Kralova A, Pavlik I, Slana I (2012) Culture- and Quantitative IS900 Real-Time PCR-based analysis of the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a controlled dairy cow farm environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:6608–6614PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nielsen SS, Toft N (2009) A review of prevalences of paratuberculosis in farmed animals in Europe. Prev Vet Med 88:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Norby B, Fosgate GT, Manning EJB, Collins MT, Roussel AJ (2007) Environmental mycobacteria in soil and water on beef ranches: association between presence of cultivable mycobacteria and soil and water physicochemical characteristics. Vet Microbiol 124:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pribylova R, Slana I, Lamka J, Babak V, Hruska K, Pavlik I (2010) Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a mouflon herd without clinical symptoms monitored using IS900 real-time PCR: a case report. Vet Med 55:625–630Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pribylova R, Slana I, Kaevska M, Lamka J, Babak V, Jandak J, Pavlik I (2011) Soil and plant contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to naturally contaminated mouflon feces. Curr Microbiol 62:1405–1410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raizman EA, Wells SJ, Munoz-Zanzi CA, Tavornpanich S (2011) Estimated within-herd prevalence (WHP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a sample of Minnesota dairy herds using bacterial culture of pooled fecal samples. Can J Vet Res 75:112–116PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salgado M, Collins MT, Salazar F, Kruze J, Bolske G, Soderlund R, Juste R, Sevilla IA, Biet F, Troncoso F, Alfaro M (2011) Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after application of contaminated dairy cattle manure to agricultural soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:2122–2129PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salgado M, Alfaro M, Salazar F, Troncoso E, Mitchell RM, Ramirez L, Naguil A, Zamorano P, Collins MT (2013) Effect of soil slope on the appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water running off grassland soil after application of contaminated slurry. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:3544–3552PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Slana I, Kralik P, Kralova A, Pavlik I (2008) On-farm spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk studied by IS900 and F57 competitive real time quantitative PCR and culture examination. Int J Food Microbiol 128:250–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whittington RJ, Marshall DJ, Nicholls PJ, Marsh AB, Reddacliff LA (2004) Survival and dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2989–3004PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marija Kaevska
    • 1
  • S. Lvoncik
    • 2
  • J. Lamka
    • 3
  • I. Pavlik
    • 1
  • I. Slana
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterinary Research InstituteBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Plant BiologyMendel UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec KraloveCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations