Antiproliferative, Antifungal, and Antibacterial Activities of Endophytic Alternaria Species from Cupressaceae
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Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria’s metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.
KeywordsEndophytic Fungus Conidial Germination Intracellular Metabolite Alternaria Alternata Extracellular Metabolite
Dr. Jafar Abdollahzadeh (PhD), Dr. Salar Jamali (PhD), and Abolghasem Ghasemi (MSc) are appreciated for their generous gifting of target fungi and bacteria. We are thankful to our colleagues Dr. Soheila Mirzaei (PhD), Freydoun Babalhavaeji (MSc), and Dr. Javad Hamzei (PhD) at Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan, Iran, for their helpful technical discussions. J. S. dedicates this work to the memory of Adrina Ezmiri.
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