Current Microbiology

, 63:403 | Cite as

The Distribution and Frequency of Oral Veillonella spp. in the Tongue Biofilm of Healthy Young Adults

  • Izumi Mashima
  • Arihide Kamaguchi
  • Futoshi NakazawaEmail author


Five species of oral Veillonella, V. atypica, V. denticariosi, V. dispar, V. parvula, and V. rogosae, have been suggested to be early colonizers of dental biofilm and causes of opportunistic infections and oral malodor. However, the pathogenicity and the distribution of oral Veillonella spp. have not been clarified. Previously, oral Veillonella spp. were identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, recently, Veillonella isolates from human tongue biofilm were identified by rpoB gene sequences, but these procedures are time-consuming and complex. To overcome this problem, Igarashi et al. have designed species-specific primer sets for oral Veillonella spp. by using a highly variable region in the rpoB gene. In the present study, the distribution and frequency of oral Veillonella spp. in the tongue biofilm of healthy adults in their 20s were examined by using these species-specific primer sets. Tongue biofilms of these subjects were found to be divided into two groups based on the distribution and frequency of oral Veillonella spp. In one group, V. rogosae was the predominant species; the other group consisted of mainly V. dispar and V. atypica. Multiple factors may influence these differences in distribution and frequency of oral Veillonella spp. in tongue biofilm. This is the first report also demonstrating the availability of the species-specific primer sets for PCR to determine the distribution and frequency of oral Veillonella spp. in the tongue biofilm of healthy adults in their 20s.


Early Childhood Caries rpoB Gene Oral Malodor Human Oral Cavity Severe Early Childhood Caries 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge Osamu UEHARA for subject recruitment and clinical measurements, and Eiji IGARASHI, Hiroshi MIYAKAWA, and Mari FUJITA for sample processing. This study was supported in part by a “High-Tech Research Center” Project grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.


  1. 1.
    Delwiche EA, Pestka JJ, Tortorello ML (1985) The Veillonellae: gram negative cocci with a unique physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol 39:175–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sutter VL (1984) Anaerobes as normal oral flora. Rev Infect Dis 4:406–425Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aas JA, Barbuto SM, Alpagot T et al (2007) Subgingival plaque microbiota in HIV positive patients. J Clin Periodontol 34(3):189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Randall G, Fisher Mark RD (1996) Veillonella parvula Bacteremia without an underlying source. J Clin Microbiol 34:3235–3236Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sabine G et al (2009) Complete genome sequence of Veillonella parvula type strain (Te3T). Stand Genomic Sci 1:57–65Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arif N, Do T, Byun R et al (2008) Veillonella rogosae sp. nov., an anaerobic Gram-negative coccus isolated from dental plaque. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:581–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arif N, Sheehy EC, Do T, Beighton D (2008) Diversity of Veillonella spp. from sound and carious sites in children. J Dent Res 87:278–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jumas BE, Carlier JP, Jean PH et al (2004) Veillonella montepellierensis sp. nov., a novel anaerobic Gram-negative coccus isolated human clinical samples. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1311–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kolenbrander PE, Moore LVH (1992) The genus Veillonella. In: Balows HG, Trüper M, Dworkin W, Harder W, Schleifer KH (eds) The prokaryotes, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 2034–2047Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mareike K, David T (2008) Veillonella magna sp. nov., isolated from the jejunal mucosa of a healthy pig, and emended description of Veillonella ratti. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:2755–2761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mays TD, Holdeman LV, Moore WEC et al (1982) Taxnomy of the genus Veillonella Prèvot. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rogosa M (1984) Anaerobic Gram-negative cocci. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 680–685Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN et al (2005) Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol 43:5721–5732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beighton D, Clark D, Hanakura B et al (2008) The predominant cultivable Veillonella spp. of the tongue of healthy adults identified using rpo B sequencing. Oral Microbiol Immunol 23:344–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kanasi E, Dewhirst FE, Chalmers NI et al (2010) Clonal analysis of the microbiota of severe early childhood caries. Caries Res 44:485–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sundqvist G (1992) Associations between microbial species in dental root canal infections. Oral Microbiol Immunol 4:47–51Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wittgow WC Jr, Sabiston CB Jr (1975) Microorganisms from pulpal chambers of intact teeth with necrotic pulps. J Endod 1:168–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khemaleelakul S, Baumgartner JC, Pruksakorn S (2002) Identification of bacteria in acuteendodontic infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 94:746–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baumgartener JC, Falkler WA Jr (1991) Bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals. J Endod 17:278–282Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peters LB, Wesselink PR, Buijs JF et al (2001) Viable bacteria in root dentinal tubules of teeth with apical periodontitis. J Endod 27:76–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saravanan P, Kolenbrander PE (2009) Mutualistic biofilm communities develop with Porphyromonas gingivalis and initial, early, and late colonizers of enamel. J Bacteriol 191:6804–6811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saravanan P, Kolenbrander PE (2010) Central role of the early colonizer Veillonella sp. in establishing multispecies biofilm communities with initial, middle, and late colonizers of enamel. J Bacteriol 192:2965–2972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Faveri M, Feres M, Shibli JA et al (2006) Microbiota of the dorsum of the tongue after plaque accumulation: an experimental study in humans. J Periodontol 77:1539–1546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haraszthy VI, Zambon JJ, Sreenivasan PK et al (2007) Identification of oral bacterial species associated with halitosis. J Am Dent Assoc 138:1113–1120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hughes CV, Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RF et al (1988) Coaggregation properties of human oral Veillonella spp.: relationship to colonization site and oral ecology. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:1957–1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marger DL, Ximenez-Fyvie LA, Haffajee AD, Socrabsky SS (2003) Distribution of selected bacterial species on intraoral surface. J Clin Periodontol 30:644–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marchandin H, Jean PH, Carrière C et al (2001) Prosthetic joint infection due to Veillonella dispar. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:340–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Washio J, Sato T, Koseki T et al (2005) Hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in tongue biofilm and their relationship with oral malodour. J Med Microbiol 54:889–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Byun R, Carlier JP, Jacques NA et al (2007) Veillonella denticariosi sp. nov., isolated from human carious dentine. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2844–2848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marchandin H, Teyssier C, Siméon DB et al (2003) Intra-chromosomal heterogeneity between the four 16S rRNA gene copies in the genus Veillonella: implications for phylogeny and taxonomy. Microbiology 149:1493–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sato T, Matsuyama J, Sato M et al (1997) Diffrrentiation of Veillonella atypica, Veillonella disper, Veillonella parvula using restricted fragment-length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol Immunol 12:350–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Igarashi E, Kamaguchi A, Fujita M et al (2009) Identification of oral species of the genus Veillonella by polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol Immunol 24:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rogosa M, Fitzgerald RJ, Mackintosh ME et al (1958) Improved medium for selective isolation of Veillonella. J Bacteriol 76:455–456PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izumi Mashima
    • 1
  • Arihide Kamaguchi
    • 1
  • Futoshi Nakazawa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Oral MicrobiologyHealth Sciences University of Hokkaido Graduate School of DentistryIshikari-TobetsuJapan

Personalised recommendations