Current Microbiology

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 1245–1252 | Cite as

Molecular Characterization of Morchella Species from the Western Himalayan Region of India

  • Harpreet Kaur Kanwal
  • Karan Acharya
  • G. Ramesh
  • M. Sudhakara Reddy
Article

Abstract

The molecular diversity of thirty-two different Morchella cultures/fruiting bodies, collected from the Western Himalayan region was studied in this investigation. Considerable taxonomic confusion exists regarding many species of Morchella. Although classical taxonomy is helpful in identification for many ascomycetes, morels exhibit considerable morphological diversity and there is disagreement in the identification of morel species. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences could help in sorting out morel taxonomy which is essential to better define the morel diversity. In this study, sequence analysis revealed that in the Western Himalayan region of India, both yellow (M. crassipes, M. spongiola) and black morels (M. elata, M. angusticeps, and M. gigas) were prominent along with two Verpa species. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed two different clades and a clear distinction between yellow and black morels.

References

  1. 1.
    Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers FW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment serach tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berthet P (1964) Essai biotaxonomique sur les discomyce`tes. PhD Thesis, Faculte′ des Sciences de l’Universite′ de Lyon, LyonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bunyard BA, Nicholson MS, Royse DJ (1994) A systematic assessment of Morchella using RFLP analysis of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Mycologia 86:762–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bunyard BA, Nicholson MS, Royse DJ (1995) Phylogenetic resolution of Morchella, Verpa and Disciotis [Pezizales: Morchellaceae] based on restriction enzyme analysis of the 28S ribosomal gene. Exp Mycol 19:223–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buscot FD, Wipf C, Battista DI, Munch JC, Botton B, Martin F (1996) DNA polymorphism in morels. I. PCR/RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA spacers and microsatellite primed PCR. Mycol Res 100:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Diez J, Manjo JL, Martin F (2002) Molecular phylogeny of the mycorrhizal desert truffles (Terfezia and Tirmania), host specificity and edaphic tolerance. Mycologia 94:247–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jacquetant E (1984) Les morilles. Plantanida, Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jandaik CL, Sharma SR (1995) Present status of Morchella in India. In: Chadha KL, Sharma SR (eds) Advances in Horticulture, pp 171–194Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Katoh K, Toh H (2008) Recent developments in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Brief Bioinfo 9:286–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kellner H, Renker C, Buscot F (2005) Species diversity within the Morchella esculenta group (Ascomycota: Morchellaceae) in Germany and France. Org divers Evol 5:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuo M (2009) Morchella tomentosa, a new species from Western North America, and notes on M. rufobrunnea. Mycotaxon 105:441–446Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lakhanpal TN, Shad OS (1986) Studies on wild edible mushrooms of Himachal Pradesh (N.W.Himalayas). II. Ecological relationships of Morchella species. Indian J of Mushrooms 12:15–20Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nilsson RH, Kristiansson E, Ryberg M, Larsson KH (2005) Approaching the taxonomic affiliation of unidentified sequences in public databases—an example from the mycorrhizal fungi. BMC Bioinfo 6:178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nitha B, Meera CR, Janardhanan KK (2007) Anti-inflammatory and antitumour activities of cultured mycelium of morel mushroom, Morchella esculenta. Curr Sci 92:235–239Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pilz D, Weber N, Carter M, Parks C, Molina R (2004) Productivity and diversity of morel mushrooms in healthy, burned and insect-damaged forests of northeastern Oregon. For Ecol Manag 198:367–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MRBAYES3: bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinfo 19:1572–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Royse DJ, May B (1990) Interspecific allozyme variation among Morchella spp. and its interferences for systematics within the genus. Biochem Syst Ecol 18:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ryber M, Nilsson RH, Kristiansson E, Topel M, Jacobsson S, Larsson E (2008) Mining metadata from unidentified ITS sequences in GenBank: a case study in Inocybe (Basidiomycota). BMC Evol Biol 8:50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sohi HS, Kumar S, Seth PK (1965) Some interesting fleshy fungi from Himachal Pradesh. J Indian Bot Soc 54:69–73Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stamatakis A (2006a) Phylogenetic models of rate heterogeneity: a high performance computing perspective. In: Proceedings of IPDPS 2006. Rhodos, p 8Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinfo 22:2688–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web Servers. Syst Biol 57:758–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stefani OPF, Sokolski S, wurtz T, Piche Y, Hamelin R, Fortin A, Berube JA (2010) Morchella tomentosa: a unique belowground structure and a new clade of morels. Mycologia 102:1082–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    VanKan JAL, van den Ackerveken GFJM, de Wit PJGM (1991) Cloning and characterization of the cDNA of avirulence avr9 pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, the causative agent of tomato leaf mild. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Waraitch KS (1976) The genus Morchella in India. Kavaka 4:69–76Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weber NS (1988) A morel hunters companion. Twopeninsula, LansingGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wipf D, Fribourg A, Munch JC, Botton B, Buscot F (1999) Diversity of the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA in morels. Can J Micro 45:769–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wipf D, Munch JC, Botton B, Buscot F (1996) DNA polymorphism in morels: complete sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of genes coding for rRNA in Morchella esculenta (yellow morel) and Morchella conica (black morel). Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3541–3543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoon CS, Gessner RV, Romano MA (1990) Population genetics and systematics of the Morchella esculenta complex. Mycologia 82:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harpreet Kaur Kanwal
    • 1
  • Karan Acharya
    • 1
  • G. Ramesh
    • 1
  • M. Sudhakara Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations