Morphological and Molecular Differences in Two Strains of Ustilago esculenta
Ustilago esculenta is a fungal endophyte of Zizania latifolia that plays an important agricultural role in this vegetable crop. The purpose of this study was to characterize sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains of U. esculenta isolated from sporulating and non-sporulating galls on plants growing in Zhejiang province, China. Morphological comparisons of the T strain and M-T strain were made by optical and scanning electron microscope observation. Genetic differences were examined by sequencing the ITS region of the fungus and examining differential protein expression by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. The sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains differed in morphological characteristics of their in vitro single colony formations and in cell shape. Alignment of ITS sequences of the T strain and M-T strain revealed a single mutation between the T strain and M-T strain, but the sequences were the same within strains. A total of 146 proteins were only expressed in the M-T strain, and 242 proteins were only expressed in the T strain isolated from infected plants. A total of 222 proteins were up-regulated or down-regulated in the T strain when compared with the M-T strain. Of these, 18 proteins were identified and eight were associated with processes involving energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. Two morphology-related proteins, MAP kinase kinase and actin, were differentially expressed. The differences noted in the T strain and M-T strain may lead to a better understanding of the life cycle and morphogenesis in U. esculenta.
KeywordsGall Formation Mycelial Form Mowse Score White Mycelium Zizania Latifolia
This study was supported in part by “National Natural Science Foundation of China (30940018)”, Zhejiang Province Important Science and Technology Tackled Project (2004C22003), and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Y3090173).
- 1.Camus A (1950) Les especes utiles du genre Zizania (Graminees). Rev Int Bot Appl Agric Trop 30:50–60Google Scholar
- 7.Fujii Y, Konno K, Atarashi K et al (2007) A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by smut spores of Ustilago esculenta. J Jpn Respir Soci 45(4):344–348Google Scholar
- 9.Hennings P (1895) Neue und interessante Pilze aus Königl. botan. Museum in Berlin III. Hedwigia 34:10Google Scholar
- 10.Hung SF, Chang TL, Chen IZ et al (2006) Anatomic observation of the symbiotic coba (Zizania latifolia Turcz.) and Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. J Taiwan Soc Hort Sci 52(3):291–296Google Scholar
- 11.Jiang JZ, Cao BS, Huang GF et al (2005) Changes of NSC, enzymes and endogenous hormones during Zizania gall’s swelling. Acta Hort Sinica 32(1):134–137Google Scholar
- 12.Jiang JZ, Zhang Q, Cao BS, Zhu QS (2004) Primary study on changes of protective enzymes’ activities in Zizania gall’s swelling. J Yangzhou Univ (Agric & Life Sci Edn) 25(2):68–71Google Scholar
- 13.Jiang JZ, Qiu JJ, Han XQ et al (2004) Changes of endogenous hormone contents of different parts during development of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). J Wuhan Bot Res 22(3):245–250Google Scholar
- 14.José RH, Alfredo D et al (1998) The fungus Ustilago maydis, from the aztec cuisine to the research laboratory. Int Microbiol 1:149–158Google Scholar
- 16.Lázaro-Diéguez F, Egea G (2007) Comparative study of the impact of the actin cytoskeleton on cell shape and membrane surface in mammalian cells in response to actin toxins. In: Méndez-Vilas A, Díaz J (eds) Modern research and educational topics in microscopy, vol I. FORMATEX, Spain, pp 362–369Google Scholar
- 19.Stapf O (1909) The manchurian water–rice. Kew Bu 1908:385–390Google Scholar
- 20.Su HJ (1961) Some cultural studies on Ustilago esculenta. Special Publication. Agric Nat Taiwan Univ 10:139–160Google Scholar