Current Microbiology

, 58:315 | Cite as

Vertical Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China

  • Jialin YuEmail author
  • Shixiao Wu
  • Fang Li
  • Linyan Hu


This is the first study to investigate vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China. For this study, 300 cervical swab samples from pregnant women and 305 nasopharygeal swab samples from their babies (605 specimens) were collected for nest polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) of the ompl gene, which encodes the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and typed C. trachomatis using Cleavase fragment-length polymorphism (CFLP) labeled with digoxin. From these samples, 11% (33/300) of pregnant women samples were successfully amplified. The vertical transmission rate of C. trachomatis from mother to baby was 24% (8/33). The vertical transmission rates were 66.7% (6/9) for mothers with vaginal delivery and 8.3% (2/24) for those with cesarean section. The incidence of premature membrane rupture among C. trachomatis-positive pregnant women was 30.3% (10/33), which was greater than among those who were C. trachomatis-negative (13.5%, 36/267; χ2 = 4.2; < 0.05). Four genotypes including type E (3 pairs), type F (2 pairs), type H (2 pairs), and type D (1 pair) were observed by CFLP assay labeled with digoxin and confirmed by DNA sequencing in the 16 C. trachomatis-positive samples from eight pregnant women and their eight infants. Each pair of matched maternal–infantile samples showed identical CFLP. This study showed the incidence of C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women, the vertical transmission rate for C. trachomatis, and the genotypes of C. trachomatis in Chongqing, China. The CFLP assay labeled at the 5′ end of the forward primer with digoxin was first used successfully to genotype of C. trachomatis. As a promising method for C. trachomatis genotyping, CFLP had good sensitivity, reproducibility, and simplicity and no radioactive contamination.


Digoxin Vertical Transmission Chlamydia Trachomatis Radioactive Contamination Major Outer Membrane Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Bing Deng and Xiaoping Zhang for their technical assistance. In addition, we are grateful to Xiaoyun Zhong for helpful discussions. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30170991).


  1. 1.
    Ngandjio A, Clerc M, Fonkoua MC et al (2004) Restriction endonuclease patterns of the omp1 gene of reference Chlamydia trachomatis strains and characterization of isolates from Cameroonian students. J Med Microbiol 53:47–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang CP, Zhu DY, Zhu XX (2002) Study on the route of intrauterine infection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chin J Obstet Gynecol 37:149–151Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pedersen LN, Kjaer HO, Moller JK et al (2000) High-resolution genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from recurrent urogenital infections. J Clin Microbiol 38:3068–3071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anttila T, Saikku P, Koskela P et al (2001) Serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and risk for development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. JAMA 285:47–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morre SA, Rozendaal L, van Valkengoed IG et al (2000) Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection: An association with clinical manifestations? J Clin Microbiol 38:2292–2296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Molano M, Meijer CJ, Morre SA, van den Brule AJ (2004) Combination of PCR targeting the VD2 of omp1 and reverse line blot analysis for typing of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical scrape specimens. J Clin Microbiol 42:2935–2939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yakubu DE, Abadi FJ, Pennington TH (1999) Molecular typing methods for Neisseria meningitidis. J Med Microbiol 48:1055–1064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lucio M, Davide C, Carla RA (2007) Advancements in molecular epidemiology of implant infections and future perspectives. Biomaterials 2:5155–5168Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yuan Y, Zhang YX, Watkins NG et al (1989) Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the four variable domains of the major outer membrane proteins of the 15 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars. Infect Immun 57:1040–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lyons JM, Ito JI, Morré SA (2004) Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E isolates from patients with different clinical manifestations have similar courses of infection in a murine model: Host factors as major determinants of C. trachomatis-mediated pathogenesis. J Clin Pathol 57:657–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Solomon AW, Alexander ND, WT/BWF Trachoma Study Group (2005) A rapid field–based assay for ocular C. trachomatis infection for use in trachoma control programs: Rationale and requirements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:5020Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koen DQ, Bernhard K, Maurits NC et al (2007) A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars. J Mol Diagn 9:631–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gaydos CA, Theodore M, Dalesio N et al (2004) Comparison of three nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol 42:3041–3045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsu MC, Tsai PY, Chen KT et al (2006) Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from clinical specimens in Taiwan. J Med Microbiol 55:301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee G, Park J, Kim B et al (2006) OmpA genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from Korean female sex workers. J Infect 52:451–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robert CC, Glenn PM, Brian PH et al (2002) Temperature-mediated heteroduplex analysis performed by using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to identify sequence polymorphisms in mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms. J Clin Microbiol 40:1610–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakayama K, Toki T, Zhai YL et al (2001) Demonstration of focal p53 expression without genetic alterations in endometriotic lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wei WL, Killeen AA (1998) Analysis of four common salt-wasting mutations in CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase) by Cleavase fragment-length polymorphism analysis and characterization of a frequent polymorphism in intron 6. Mol Diagn 3:171–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Casadei S, Corteso L, Pensotti V (2004) Detection of germline BRCA1 mutations by multiple-dye Cleavase fragment-length polymorphism (MD-CFLP) method. Br J Cancer 85:845–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mardh PA (2002) Influence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis on pregnancy outcome, infant health, and life-long sequelae in infected offspring. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 16:847–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sreevatsan S, Bookout JB, Ringpis FM et al (1998) Algorithmic approach to high-throughput molecular screening for alpha interferon-resistant genotypes in hepatitis C patients. J Clin Microbiol 36:1895–1901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sreevatsan S, BooKout JB, Ringpis FM et al (1998) Comparative evaluation of Cleavase fragment-length polymorphism with PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP to detect antimicrobial agent resistance in Mycobacterirm tuberculosus. Mol Diagn 3:81–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fang D, Hatim TA, Todd A et al (2001) Secondary structure prediction and structure-specific sequence analysis of single-stranded DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 29:3248–3257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu JL, Wu SX, Liu GX (1998) Primary genotypying of C. trachomatis by using Cleavase fragment-length polymorphism analysis. Chin J Med Lab Sciences 21:247Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyChildren’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations